Student record 2011/12

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JACS2 - Full listing

Version 1.0 Produced 2006-07-31

The JACS2 subject coding system have been developed jointly by HESA and UCAS. This replaces JACS v1.7

A Medicine & dentistry

     A100   Pre-clinical medicine Vocational science of preventing, diagnosing, alleviating or curing disease in homo sapiens. Includes such areas as Anatomy, Physiology, Pharmacy and Nutrition which can be specialisms in their own right.
     A200   Pre-clinical dentistry Vocational science concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of damage, disease and disorder to the teeth and gums of homo sapiens.
     A300   Clinical medicine The observation, diagnosis and treatment of an illness or disease through direct interaction with human patients.
     A400   Clinical dentistry The observation, diagnosis and treatment of disease or damage to teeth and gums through direct interaction with human patients.
     A900   Others in medicine & dentistry Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Medicine and Dentistry categories. To be used sparingly.
     A990   Medicine & dentistry not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Others in Medicine and Dentistry categories. To be used sparingly.

B Subjects allied to medicine

     B100   Anatomy, physiology & pathology The study of the human body and how it is affected by disease. Taught by the dissection of cadavers, use of microscope slides and interviewing patients. Includes study at a cellular level.
     B110   Anatomy The scientific study of the structure and function of the human body, including tissues, organs and systems.
     B120   Physiology The study of systemic function and behaviour of the human body, including processes such as respiration, circulation, digestion, excretion, and reproduction.
     B130   Pathology The study of the nature, causes and development of human diseases, and the mechanisms of disease infestation and transfer.
     B131   Cellular pathology The study of the effects and nature of diseases in cellular structures.
     B132   Pathobiology The study of the biological nature of diseases.
     B140   Neuroscience The study of the anatomy, physiology, biophysics, biochemistry, molecular biology and behaviour roles of neuron cells and biological nervous systems in humans.
     B160   Physiotherapy The study of the planning and execution of treatment programmes to prevent or remedy physical dysfunction,relieve pain and prevent further disability.
     B190   Anatomy, physiology & pathology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology categories. To be used sparingly.
     B200   Pharmacology, toxicology & pharmacy The study of drugs, their characteristics, actions and uses. Includes the study of poisons, their nature, effects and antidotes. Also includes how drugs and other chemicals interact with biological systems.
     B210   Pharmacology The study of the therapeutic and toxic effects of drugs on human tissues and systems.
     B220   Toxicology The study of the nature, source, identification and characteristics of poisons, toxic substances, and exogenous chemical agents and their effects on human tissues and systems.
     B230   Pharmacy The study of the professional practice of pharmacy. Includes instruction in principles of medicinal chemistry, drug behaviour, and mixing, preparing and dispensing of prescription medications.
     B290   Pharmacology, toxicology & pharmacy not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy categories. To be used sparingly.
     B300   Complementary medicine The prevention, alleviation and treatment of illness or disease by techniques not covered within clinical medicine. Includes such areas as acupuncture, osteopathy, reflexology etc.
     B310   Osteopathy The treatment of disease through the manipulation of bones.
     B320   Chiropractic The diagnosis and manipulative treatment of mechanical disorders of the joints.
     B330   Chiropody The treatment of the feet, and their ailments. Also called Podiatry.
     B340   Alternative medicine Methods of diagnosis and treatment considered outside the scope of mainstream medicine in the UK.
     B341   Chinese The range of medical techniques with roots in China, such as moxibustion, massage, cupping, gwa sha, breathwork (Qi Gong) and exercise (Tai Chi).
     B342   Herbalism The use of herbs in the treatment of illness.
     B343   Acupuncture The method of treating various conditions by pricking the skin or tissues with needles.
     B344   Aromatherapy The use of plant extracts and essential oils in massage.
     B345   Hypnotherapy The treatment of disease by hypnosis.
     B346   Reflexology A system of massage through reflex points on the feet, hands and head used to relieve tension and treat illness.
     B390   Complementary medicine not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects not elsewhere classified. To be used sparingly.
     B400   Nutrition The study of the process of assimilating nutrient materials into animal or plant tissue. Designed to enhance health and the quality of life of those treated.
     B410   Dietetics The study of nutritional services, menu planning and diet formulation for individuals, families and institutions.
     B490   Nutrition not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Dietetics categories. To be used sparingly.
     B500   Ophthalmics The study of the eye, disruption to sight and diseases of the eye. Also includes treatment of eye disorders.
     B510   Optometry The study of the principles and techniques for examining, diagnosing and treating conditions of the human visual system.
     B520   Orthoptics The study of principles and techniques for the correction of vision defects in humans using therapeutic exercises.
     B590   Ophthalmics not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Ophthalmic categories. To be used sparingly.
     B600   Aural & oral sciences The study of speech and hearing and problems that can occur with them. Includes the treatment of hearing defects and speech impediments.
     B610   Audiology The study of the anatomy and physiology of the human hearing organs, their function and malfunction, and related environmental and behavioural topics.
     B620   Speech science The study of the anatomy and physiology of the human speech organs, their function and malfunction, and related environmental and behavioural topics.
     B630   Language pathology The study of the principles and techniques of therapies for persons with physical or behavioural disorders that affect speaking or comprehension.
     B690   Aural & oral sciences not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Aural and Oral Science categories. To beused sparingly.
     B700   Nursing Vocational science concerning the practical care of sick, injured or infirm patients in hospital and the community. May include allied subjects in behavioural, social and biological sciences.
     B701   Palliative care nursing The study of principles and techniques for the provision of palliative care of the sick, disabled and infirm.
     B710   Community nursing The study of principles and techniques for the provision of care for the sick, disabled and infirm within a community.
     B711   District nursing The vocational study of principles and techniques associated with the peripatetic care of individuals within a community.
     B712   Health visiting The study of the techniques of assisting elderly, convalescent or disabled persons in their homes, and
     B713   School nursing The vocational study of principles and techniques for the provision of care within a school setting.
     B714   Practice nursing The vocational study of principles and techniques associated with a doctor's surgery.
     B720   Midwifery The vocational study of principles and techniques to allow midwives to deliver babies and treat mothers in the pre-natal, delivery and post-delivery periods.
     B730   Paediatric nursing The vocational study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to provide care for children, from infancy to adolescence.
     B740   Adult nursing The vocational study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to provide care for adults
     B741   Geriatric nursing The vocational study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to provide care for the elderly.
     B750   Dental nursing The study of principles and techniques in providing assistance to dentists undertaking dental procedures and care to persons undergoing such procedures.
     B760   Mental health nursing The study of principles and techniques to allow nurses to provide care for persons with mental, emotional or behavioural disorders.
     B761   Learning disability nursing The study of the principles and techniques to provide support for learning needs.
     B770   Medical nursing The study of principles and techniques to allow nurses to provide care to patients before and during surgery and to provide assistance to surgeons.
     B771   Critical care nursing The study of principles and techniques for care of critically ill patients.
     B780   Paramedical nursing The study of principles and techniques to allow nurses to provide on-site care for persons with acute illnesses or injuries.
     B790   Nursing not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Nursing categories. To be used sparingly.
     B800   Medical technology The study of the use and development of medical equipment and its potential, including that used in radiography. Also involves understanding the effects of the various forms of radiation used to display and treat damage or illness.
     B810   Cardiography The study of techniques aimed at diagnosing disorders of the human cardiovascular system.
     B820   Radiology The study of the principles and techniques in the use of radiation to provide diagnostic information and therapyin medicine.
     B821   Radiography, diagnostic The study of the principles and techniques in the use of radiation to provide medical diagnostic information.
     B822   Radiography, therapeutic The study of the treatment of human diseases by means of controlled exposure to forms of radiation.
     B830   Biomechanics, biomaterials & prosthetics (non-clinical) The study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement and structure of the human body. Also the design and construction of artificial materials and devices for the purpose of regulating/replacing human tissues, organs or limbs.
     B840   Dental technology The study of the design and fabrication of dental prosthetics and restorative appliances.
     B850   Mortuary technology The study of the techniques/processes and equipment relating to the storage of deceased human beings.
     B890   Medical technology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Medical Technology categories. To be used sparingly.
     B900   Others in subjects allied to medicine Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Subjects Allied to Medicine categories. To be used sparingly.
     B910   Environmental health The study of the monitoring and evaluation of health hazards and the planning and management of public health programmes.
     B920   Occupational health The monitoring and evaluation of health standards related to industrial and commercial workplaces and locations.
     B930   Occupational therapy The study of therapeutic regimes to assist recovery from mental or physical ailments/injury.
     B940   Counselling The study of the provision of support services aimed at helping people to maintain a healthy and positive mental disposition in addressing problems.
     B990   Subjects allied to medicine not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Subjects Allied to Medicine categories. To be used sparingly.

C Biological sciences

     C100   Biology A broadly based scientific study of living organisms, both animal and vegetable. Includes their structure, functions, evolution, distribution and interrelationships.
     C110   Applied biology Topics in Biology of commercial or social importance.
     C111   Parasitology The study of the transmission and control of parasitic diseases and their vectors.
     C120   Behavioural biology The study of biological factors of behaviour.
     C130   Cell biology Concerned with the organisation of the cell, cell membrane and cell communication.
     C131   Applied cell biology Topics in Cell Biology of commercial or social importance.
     C140   Developmental/reproductive biology The study of the development and reproduction of multi-cellular organisms and the differentiation of cells, tissues and organs.
     C141   Developmental biology The study of the development of multi-cellular organisms.
     C142   Reproductive biology The study of the reproduction of multi-cellular organisms.
     C150   Environmental biology Relates animals and plants to their terrestrial and marine habitats.
     C160   Marine/freshwater biology The study of aquatic biology.
     C161   Marine biology The study of saltwater and oceanic biology.
     C162   Freshwater biology The study of freshwater and estuarine biology.
     C170   Population biology The study of organism numbers and population dynamics.
     C180   Ecology The study of organisms in their environment, their interactions and history.
     C181   Biodiversity Concentrates on the design and development of different species and their interrelationships.
     C182   Evolution The study of organisms' adaptation to their environment and the mechanisms of heredity and change.
     C190   Biology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Biology categories. To be used sparingly.
     C191   Biometry Concerned with the quantitative techniques and measurement in the biological Sciences.
     C200   Botany The study of plants including their classification, structure, physiology, ecology and economic importance. Includes the importance of plants for a balanced ecosystem including the process of energy fixation and conversion in to the biosphere (and thus with food and fuel). May also be called Plant Science.
     C210   Applied botany Topics in Botany of commercial or social importance.
     C220   Mycology The study of fungi, symbiotic relationships and their role in decay.
     C240   Plant cell science Concerned with the cellular organisation and function in plants.
     C250   Plant pathology Concerned with the diseases of plants and their treatments.
     C290   Botany not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Botany categories. To be used sparingly.
     C300   Zoology The scientific study of all aspects of animal biology: their reproduction, development, physiology, behaviour, mechanics of locomotion, diseases and interactions with the environment.
     C310   Applied zoology Zoological topics of commercial or social importance, eg animal disease and eradication.
     C320   Cell zoology Concerned with the cellular organisation and function in animals.
     C330   Developmental zoology Development of animals, in particular the differentiation of cells, tissues and organs.
     C340   Entomology The study of insects, including their role as pests.
     C350   Marine zoology The biological study of animals in seawater environments.
     C360   Pest science Concerned with vertebrate and invertebrate pests, their roles as disease vectors and agents of damage, and their control.
     C390   Zoology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Zoology categories. To be used sparingly.
     C400   Genetics The scientific study of origin, heredity and variation in organisms; includes the inheritance of biological information.
     C410   Applied genetics Topics in genetics of commercial or social importance, eg in animal and plant breeding, but not exclusively involving Genetic Engineering, which is coded as C460.
     C420   Human genetics The study of the genetics of the human species, including chromosome theory and the mechanism of gene action.
     C430   Medical & veterinary genetics The investigation of genetic abnormalities and their treatment.
     C431   Medical genetics The investigation of genetic abnormalities and their treatment in humans.
     C432   Veterinary genetics The investigation of genetic abnormalities and their treatment in animals.
     C440   Molecular genetics The study of genetic factors and processes at molecular level.
     C450   Genomics The branch of genetics that studies organisms in terms of their genomes (their full DNA sequences).
     C460   Genetic engineering The use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products.
     C490   Genetics not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Genetics categories. To be used sparingly.
     C500   Microbiology The scientific study of micro-organisms encompassing major components of genetics and molecular biology. Includes bacteriology, virology, cell structure and function, and may include some immunology.
     C510   Applied microbiology Topics in microbiology of commercial or social importance.
     C520   Medical & veterinary microbiology The study of the interactions between micro-organisms and their hosts.
     C521   Medical microbiology The study of the interactions between micro-organisms and their human hosts.
     C522   Veterinary microbiology The study of the interactions between micro-organisms and their animal hosts.
     C530   Bacteriology The study of bacteria and bacterial diseases.
     C540   Virology The study of viruses and viral diseases.
     C550   Immunology The study of the immune system as a defence mechanism against infection.
     C570   Serology The study of sera and blood-related products.
     C590   Microbiology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Microbiology categories. To be used sparingly.
     C600   Sports science The scientific study of the anatomy, physiology, biomechanics and psychology of the human body with a view to optimising performance in sporting activities.
     C700   Molecular biology, biophysics & biochemistry The scientific study of the chemical compounds and reactions occurring in the cells of living organisms including the molecular and biochemical analysis of life processes. Involves aspects of cellular organisation processes. and specialisation and how the structure and function of DNA, RNA proteins, enzymes and membranes determine biological
     C710   Applied molecular biology, biophysics & biochemistry Topics in Molecular Biology, Biophysics and Biochemistry of commercial or social importance.
     C720   Biological chemistry The study of the molecules and compounds that make up cells and organisms; how they are formed and how they interact. Includes the study of Molecular Biology.
     C730   Metabolic biochemistry Covers the biochemical aspects of metabolic processes.
     C740   Medical & veterinary biochemistry The study of the molecular basis of health and illness.
     C741   Medical biochemistry Covers the biochemical aspects of metabolic processes in humans.
     C742   Veterinary biochemistry Covers the biochemical aspects of metabolic processes in animals.
     C750   Plant biochemistry Concerned with cellular processes in plants including the understanding of the expression of genetic information.
     C760   Biomolecular science The study of the molecular processes in the life sciences.
     C770   Biophysical science The use of the methods of physical science in the biological sciences.
     C790   Molecular biology, biophysics & biochemistry not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Molecular Biology, Biophysics and Biochemistry categories. To be used sparingly.
     C800   Psychology "The study of behavioural and mental processes. May include study of the brain, the senses, and the biological and physiological bases of behaviour."
     C810   Applied psychology The application of psychological evidence and theories to real world situations.
     C811   Occupational psychology The psychology of selection, motivation and performance in the workplace.
     C812   Educational psychology The psychology of learning and teaching in educational settings.
     C813   Sport psychology The psychology of sport.
     C814   Organisational psychology The psychology of human behaviour in organisational settings.
     C815   Business psychology The applications of psychology to business contexts.
     C816   Forensic psychology The psychological aspects of crime and criminal behaviour.
     C820   Developmental psychology The study of the development of psychological processes across the life cycle.
     C821   Child psychology The study of the development of psychological processes in childhood.
     C822   The psychology of ageing Psychological aspects of the ageing process in adults.
     C830   Methodological & conceptual issues in psychology Investigation into fundamental psychological processes.
     C831   Research methods in psychology The study of the techniques, methodology and statistical procedures used in psychology.
     C832   Quantitative psychology The use of measurement, quantitative and statistical techniques in psychological testing.
     C833   Qualitative psychology The use and analysis of qualitative techniques in psychology.
     C834   History of psychology The historical development of methodology and theory in psychology.
     C835   Philosophy of psychology Philosophical and conceptual issues underlying psychology.
     C840   Psychology in health & medicine The application of psychology to physiological and physical well-being.
     C841   Health psychology The study of the psychological factors in maintaining and recovering physical well-being.
     C842   Clinical psychology The study and treatment of psychological disorder.
     C843   Counselling psychology The study and application of psychological processes of counselling.
     C844   Psychotherapy The study and application of psychological processes of therapy.
     C845   Clinical neuropsychology The study of clinical aspects of the psychological consequences of neurological disorders.
     C846   Community psychology The applications of psychology in community contexts.
     C847   Psychoanalytical studies The application of psychodynamic approaches within psychology.
     C848   Psychology of mental health The study of psychological well-being
     C850   Cognitive & affective psychology The study of the mechanism and processes associated with perception, learning, language, memory and the emotions.
     C851   Psychological modelling The application of psychology to the development and application of computational models of cognitive processes.
     C852   Psychology of communication The study of psychological processes in verbal and non-verbal communication.
     C853   Psychology of memory & learning The study of psychological processes of memory and learning.
     C854   Psychology of perception The study of psychological processes in perception.
     C855   Psychology of higher cognitive processes The study of thinking, reasoning, decision-making and problem solving.
     C856   Experimental psychology The experimental investigation of behavioural and mental processes
     C857   Affective psychology Psychology of emotional behaviour.
     C858   Transpersonal psychology The study of psychological aspects of spiritual and mystic experience.
     C860   Psychobiology Biological explanations of psychological processes.
     C861   Cognitive neuroscience The study of neural mechanisms underlying cognitive processes.
     C862   Affective neuroscience The study of neural mechanisms underlying emotional behaviour.
     C863   Psychopharmacology The study of the behavioural and psychological effects of drugs.
     C864   Evolutionary psychology The study of evolutionary explanations of psychology.
     C865   Animal psychology The study of cognitive processes in animals.
     C870   Personality & individual differences The study of psychological factors in individual differences.
     C871   Psychometrics The psychological testing of personality and individual differences.
     C872   Psychology of gender The study of the influence of gender on psychological processes.
     C873   Cross-cultural psychology The study of the influence of culture on psychological processes.
     C880   Social psychology The study of behaviour and mental processes in social contexts.
     C881   Social cognition The study of the cognitive processes involved in social interactions.
     C890   Psychology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Psychology categories. To be used sparingly.
     C900   Others in biological sciences Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Biological (or Life) Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.
     C910   Applied biological sciences Topics in Other Biological Sciences of commercial or social importance.
     C990   Biological sciences not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Biological (or Life) Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

D Veterinary sciences, agriculture and related subjects

     D100   Pre-clinical veterinary medicine Vocational science concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disease in animals.
     D190   Pre-clinical veterinary medicine not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Pre-clinical Veterinary Medicine categories. To be used sparingly.
     D200   Clinical veterinary medicine & dentistry The observation, diagnosis and treatment of illness, disease or damage through direct interaction with non-human patients.
     D210   Clinical veterinary medicine The observation, diagnosis and treatment of illness, disease or damage through direct interaction with non-human patients.
     D220   Clinical veterinary dentistry The observation, diagnosis and treatment of illness, disease or damage to the teeth and gums through direct interaction with non-human patients.
     D290   Clinical veterinary medicine & dentistry not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Clinical Veterinary Medicine and Dentistry categories. To be used sparingly.
     D300   Animal science The scientific study of animals, their nutrition, treatment and care. Includes the study of animals’ diseases and their cure. May include veterinary nursing. Also may include the study of drugs, their characteristics, actions and uses
     D310   Veterinary nursing Vocational science concerning the practical care of sick, injured and/or infirm animals.
     D320   Animal health The study of animal diseases with the object of prevention or diagnosis and cure.
     D321   Animal anatomy The study of the physical structure of an animal, how each part works and is related. Studies include dissection and use of microscope slides.
     D322   Animal physiology The study of systemic function and behaviour of the animal frame, including processes such as respiration, circulation, digestion, excretion, and reproduction.
     D323   Animal pathology The study of the effect of disease and/or damage to the animal frame. Studies include dissection and use of microscope slides.
     D324   Animal pharmacology The study of drugs, their characteristics, actions, uses and effects on different animals.
     D325   Animal toxicology The study of poisons, their nature, effect on different animals and possible antidotes.
     D326   Animal pharmacy The study of the preparation and dispensing of animal-related drugs. Involves an understanding of the food-chain and its interaction with human beings.
     D327   Animal nutrition The study of the process of assimilating nutrient materials into animal tissue.
     D328   Animal welfare The study of the health, contentment and well being of animals, how such contentment should be maintained and the laws concerning animal housing and provision.
     D330   Veterinary public health The study of the prevention of the spread of disease from animals to man.
     D340   Overseas veterinary development The study of international veterinary practice and its development in specialist areas.
     D390   Animal sciences not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Animal Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.
     D400   Agriculture The study of farming and husbandry, conservation, rural business studies and related applied sciences. Includes study and practical experience of cultivating land and rearing crops and livestock. May also include some aspects of rural recreation.
     D410   Arable & fruit farming The study of the most efficient way to grow crops on a large scale, including those borne on trees, for food.
     D411   Agricultural pests & diseases The study of diseases in crops and the animals and insects which attack them, with the object of preventing such disease or attack.
     D412   Crop physiology The study of crop structure and how it is affected by disease. Studies include dissection and use of microscope slides. Also includes study at cellular level.
     D413   Crop nutrition The study of the process of assimilating nutrient materials into crop tissue with the aim of understanding and providing the correct nutrient balance.
     D414   Crop protection The particular study of the development of immunities in crops. Also includes the study of artificial barriers, preventatives or exterminators for the animals/insects which attack crops.
     D415   Crop production The study of growing and harvesting crops and the relationship of arable production to its environment and humans.
     D416   Glasshouse culture The study of plant growth in greenhouse conditions.
     D417   Amenity plant production The study of plants grown for their appearance.
     D418   Exotic plants & crops The study of the most efficient way to plant, sow and harvest non-native crops.
     D420   Livestock The study of the most efficient way to keep animals for agricultural use rather than as pets.
     D421   Livestock husbandry The study of animals and their relationship with their environment and people in order to enable successful farming.
     D422   Equine studies The particular study of horses, their health, livery and use as farm, domestic and recreational animals.
     D423   Poultry keeping The study of egg and fowl production and the relationship of poultry to its environment and people.
     D424   Gamekeeping The study of the breeding, maintenance and protection of wild animals preserved specifically for hunting purposes.
     D425   Exotic livestock The study of the most efficient way to keep, rear and breed animals not native to Britain.
     D430   Fish farming The study of the most efficient way to use an area of water to rear fish for commercial sale.
     D431   Fish husbandry The study of fish in their environment for fishing or fish farming.
     D432   Freshwater fish The study of fish generic to unsalted ponds, streams, rivers and lakes, their habits, breeding patterns and the unique effects of their environment.
     D433   Saltwater fish The study of fish generic to seas, oceans and salted estuaries, their habits, breeding patterns and the unique effects of their environment.
     D434   Ornamental fish The study of fish kept for recreational purposes, their habits and breeding patterns.
     D435   Aquaculture The study of the cultivation of water resources, both plant and animal, for human consumption or use.
     D440   Rural estate management The study of the administration of large landed properties as or on behalf of their owner. Includes elements of business studies, personnel management, buildings management.
     D441   Farm management The study of the most efficient way to keep livestock and grow and harvest crops and fruit. Includes home farm management.
     D442   Gamekeeping management The study of the habitat and management of land set aside for hunting purposes.
     D443   Water resource management The study of fresh and salt water, its use commercially, domestically and recreationally. Includes the conservation of water. Also includes the study of drought, flood and the water cycle.
     D444   Land management for recreation The study of land used for informal recreation. Includes study of erosion and damage to habitat from over or inappropriate use, and the techniques to prevent, cure and minimise such damage.
     D445   Heritage management The study of the conservation of land which has or contains something of rarity value. Includes the study of Sites of Special Scientific Interest, sites of historical significance etc. May include maintenance and visitor management.
     D446   Wilderness management The study of the conservation of wild, uninhabited and uncultivated land for aesthetic, recreational or scientific purposes.
     D447   Environmental conservation The study of the protection and careful management of natural resources and the environment.
     D450   International agriculture The study of the science or occupation of cultivating land and rearing crops in various parts of the world.
     D460   Organic farming The study of agricultural processes conducted without the use of artificial chemicals in the form of fertilisers or pesticides.
     D461   Organic arable & fruit farming The study of the most efficient way to grow crops on a large scale, including those borne on trees, for food, without the use of artificial chemicals or fertilisers.
     D462   Organic livestock The study of the most efficient way to keep animals for agricultural use rather than as pets without the use of artificial chemicals or feed.
     D463   Organic fish farming The study of the most efficient way to use an area of water to rear fish for commercial sale, without the
     D470   Agricultural technology The study of practical or mechanical sciences connected with agriculture as they apply to increased efficiency, economy and crop production.
     D471   Agricultural machinery The study of the use and maintenance of agricultural machinery. Includes the study of tractors, hedge clippers, milking machines etc.
     D472   Agricultural irrigation & drainage The study of the control of water by means of artificial canals and ditches, mechanical pumps, weather stations etc.
     D490   Agriculture not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Agriculture categories. To be used sparingly.
     D500   Forestry The study of planting and caring for trees and the management of woods and forests for conservation purposes, commercial exploitation and recreational use.
     D510   Trees & shrubs The study of the most efficient way to grow hardwood and softwood trees for harvesting.
     D511   Forestry pests & diseases The study of diseases in commercially-grown hardwood and softwood trees and the animals and insects which attack them, with the object of preventing such disease or attack.
     D512   Tree physiology The study of hardwood and softwood tree structure and how it is affected by disease. Studies include dissection and use of microscope slides. Also includes study at cellular level.
     D513   Tree nutrition The study of the process of assimilating nutrient materials into tree tissue with the aim of understanding and
     D514   Tree protection The particular study of the development of immunities in trees. Also includes the study of artificial barriers,
     D515   Tree production The study of growing and harvesting trees and the relationship of such tree production to its environment.
     D516   Timber production The study of hardwood and softwood timber products. May include the different uses of wood products. May also include the suitability of certain trees for certain uses.
     D517   Community forestry The study of forestry used for recreation. Includes study of formal and informal recreational uses, erosion and damage to habitat from over or inappropriate use, and the techniques to prevent, cure and minimise such damage.
     D520   International forestry The study of the science or occupation of cultivating trees as a crop in various parts of the world.
     D530   Organic forestry The study of forestry processes conducted without the use of artificial chemicals in the form of fertilisers or pesticides.
     D540   Forestry technology The study of practical or mechanical sciences connected with forestry as they apply to increased efficiency, economy and crop production.
     D541   Forestry irrigation & drainage The study of the control of water and prevention of erosion by means of good planting, mechanical pumps etc.
     D590   Forestry not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Forestry categories. To be used sparingly.
     D600   Food & beverage studies The study of the properties and behaviour of food from the point of origin on the farm (or elsewhere), through different stages of storage, transportation, preservation or other transformations, including domestic or restaurant food preparation procedures, to its use by the consumer.
     D610   Food science The study of the properties and behaviour of food. Includes the application of physical, chemical and biological sciences to food systems.
     D611   Meat science The study of the properties of meat. Includes the application of food sciences to meat-inclusive food systems.
     D612   Cereal science The study of the properties of cereal and grains. Includes the application of food sciences to cereal-inclusive food systems.
     D613   Vegetable science The study of the properties of vegetables. Includes the application of food sciences to vegetable-inclusive food systems.
     D614   Fruit science The study of the properties of fruit. Includes the application of food sciences to fruit-inclusive food systems.
     D620   Food hygiene The study of the maintenance and promotion of health through the clean and sanitary handling of food.
     D630   Food & beverage production The study of the process of supplying food and drink. Includes study of production techniques and the amount and rate at which foodstuffs are produced.
     D631   Food & beverage manufacture The study of the development of artificial foodstuffs. Includes the substitution of one type of food for another.
     D632   Food & beverage processing The study of the preservation and processing of foodstuffs.
     D633   Food & beverage technology The study of the production techniques for food and drink. Includes study of resources and environmental concerns.
     D634   Industrial baking The study of the production of cooked foodstuffs. Includes the application of physical, chemical and biological sciences to food preparation.
     D635   Industrial brewing The study of the production of liquid beverages. Includes the application of physical, chemical and biological sciences to drink preparation.
     D640   Food & beverages for the consumer The study of food products and their preparation to attract consumers.
     D641   Food & beverage packaging The study of packaging and packaging systems to ensure economic and hygienic handling and customer satisfaction.
     D642   Food & beverage delivery The study of transportation of food and drink to ensure economic and hygienic handling and customer satisfaction.
     D690   Food & beverage studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Food and Beverage studies categories. To be used
     D700   Agricultural sciences The specifically scientific study of aspects of agriculture, excluding wider non-laboratory-based agricultural subjects such as economics, business management and land use.
     D710   Agricultural biology A scientific study of living organisms, both animal and vegetable with particular emphasis on their use in or effect on agricultural processes.
     D711   Agricultural microbiology The scientific study of micro-organisms encompassing major components of genetics and molecular biology, with particular emphasis on their use in or effect on agricultural processes. Includes bacteriology, virology, cell structure and function and may include some immunology.
     D720   Agricultural chemistry The particular study of how individual atoms and molecules react together naturally and/or synthetically to affect agricultural processes.
     D721   Agricultural biochemistry The scientific study of the chemical compounds and reactions occurring in the cells and molecules of living organisms with particular emphasis on their use in or effect on agricultural processes. Involves aspects of cellular organisation and specialisation and how the structure and function of DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes and membranes determine biological processes.
     D730   Agricultural botany The particular study of plants cultivated as a crop. Includes their classification, structure, physiology, ecology and economic importance.
     D740   Agricultural zoology The scientific study of all agriculture-related aspects of animal biology. Includes their reproduction, development, physiology, behaviour, diseases and interactions with their environment.
     D750   Soil as an agricultural medium The study of the physical, chemical and biological processes which explain soil behaviour.
     D790   Agricultural sciences not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Agricultural Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.
     D900   Others in veterinary sciences, agriculture & related subjects Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Veterinary Sciences, Agriculture and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.
     D990   Veterinary sciences, agriculture & related subjects not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Others in Veterinary Sciences, Agriculture and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

F Physical sciences

     F100   Chemistry The study of individual atoms and molecules and the way they react together naturally and synthetically.
     F110   Applied chemistry Topics in chemistry of commercial or social importance.
     F111   Industrial chemistry The study of chemical processes of industrial significance.
     F112   Colour chemistry The chemical science of dyes and pigments.
     F120   Inorganic chemistry The study of inorganic elements, compounds and reaction mechanisms.
     F130   Structural chemistry Determination and analysis of chemical structures.
     F131   Crystallography The study and application of techniques for determining crystal structure.
     F140   Environmental chemistry Concerned with environmental issues related to the chemical sciences.
     F141   Marine chemistry Topics in the chemical sciences concerned with understanding the marine environment.
     F150   Medicinal chemistry Aspects of Chemistry, such as drug design, of importance to medical science.
     F151   Pharmaceutical chemistry The study of drug function.
     F160   Organic chemistry The study of organic compounds and their reaction mechanisms.
     F161   Organometallic chemistry The study of reactions between organic compounds and metals.
     F162   Polymer chemistry The study of the properties of macromolecular compounds and their synthesis.
     F163   Bio-organic chemistry The study of natural organic compounds.
     F164   Petrochemical chemistry The chemical science of petroleum and petroleum compounds.
     F165   Biomolecular chemistry The chemical science of biological materials at the molecular level.
     F170   Physical chemistry The study of atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, energetics and dynamics.
     F180   Analytical chemistry The study of chemical and instrumental analysis.
     F190   Chemistry not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Chemistry categories. To be used sparingly.
     F200   Materials science The study of the crystalline and granular structure of materials, including electronic atomic and molecular configurations. May include the study of mining and mining techniques.
     F290   Materials science not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Materials Science categories. To be used sparingly.
     F300   Physics The study of the properties of matter and energy and the relationships between them, making extensive use of mathematical techniques and models. May include mechanics, optics, electricity, magnetism and acoustics. May also include atomic, nuclear, particle and solid state studies.
     F310   Applied physics Topics in physics of commercial or social importance.
     F311   Engineering physics Physical principles and techniques applied to engineering and technology.
     F320   Chemical physics Concerned with central area of physical science, integrating chemistry and physics.
     F321   Solid-state physics Study of the structure of solids and the explanation of their properties.
     F330   Environmental physics Aspects of physics concerned with environmental issues.
     F331   Atmospheric physics The study of the Earth's upper atmosphere.
     F332   Marine physics The study of the physical properties of the marine environment.
     F340   Mathematical & theoretical physics The mathematical principles and techniques of physics theory and explanation of physical phenomena.
     F341   Electromagnetism The study of the interaction of charges in electromagnetic fields.
     F342   Quantum mechanics Description and analysis of sub-atomic behaviour.
     F343   Computational physics Numerical and quantitative methods in physics.
     F350   Medical physics The application of Physics to the medical sciences.
     F351   Radiation physics Monitoring and evaluation of emissions from sources of radiation.
     F360   Optical physics The study of optics as a natural phenomenon and optical instrumentation.
     F361   Laser physics The study of lasers as optical instrumentation.
     F370   Nuclear & particle physics The study of matter at atomic and sub-atomic level, and of the structure and behaviour of nuclei.
     F380   Acoustics The study of the propagation and transmission of sound waves
     F390   Physics not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Physics categories. To be used sparingly.
     F400   Forensic & archaeological sciences The specifically scientific study of materials involved in investigative procedures. May necessitate the study of chemical processes and other scientific techniques including archaeological sciences.
     F410   Forensic science The application of Forensic Science in evaluating evidence in courts of law. The techniques used include fingerprinting (both traditional and genetic), analysis of blood and poison samples, ballistics etc.
     F420   Archaeological science Scientific analysis of the material remains of past cultures. Includes an approach to reconstruct and understand the past.
     F490   Forensic & archaeological sciences not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Forensic and Archaeological Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.
     F500   Astronomy The specifically scientific study of celestial bodies. Includes mathematics, statistics, physics, photography and computing.
     F510   Astrophysics The study of the physical nature of the universe including cosmology and astronomical techniques.
     F520   Space & planetary sciences The study of the solar system and evaluation of physical measurements from space.
     F521   Space science The physical science study of space beyond the solar system.
     F522   Planetary science The physical science study of the solar system.
     F590   Astronomy not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Astronomy categories. To be used sparingly.
     F600   Geology The study of the origin, history, structure and composition of the Earth. Encourages understanding of environmental problems and includes techniques on searching for mineral resources and other raw materials.
     F610   Applied geology Topics in geology of commercial or social importance.
     F611   Industrial geology The study of geological processes of industrial significance.
     F612   Engineering geology Geological structures and processes in an engineering context.
     F620   Mining geology Geological topics related to the mining and minerals industry.
     F621   Exploration geology Aspects related to the exploration for mineral resources.
     F630   Geotechnology The study of the principles and applications of geotechnical engineering.
     F631   Marine geotechnology The study of geotechnical processes in marine environments.
     F640   Earth science The study of the Earth as a unified system; includes Earth resources, surface and crustal processes.
     F641   Palaeontology The study of the fossil record.
     F642   Geoscience The study of the Earth Sciences, including geological chemistry and physics.
     F643   Quaternary studies The study of the rock systems of the most recent geological period.
     F650   Geological oceanography The study of the sedimentary processes including deposition and dynamics in the oceans.
     F660   Geophysics The study of the physical structure and dynamics of the Earth.
     F661   Exploration geophysics Geophysical techniques concerned with the discovery of geological deposits.
     F670   Geochemistry The study of the chemical processes taking place at or near the Earth's surface.
     F690   Geology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Geology categories. To be used sparingly.
     F700   Science of aquatic & terrestrial environments The study of environments comprising the earth’s surface, oceans, sea-bed and atmosphere; and the interactions between them.
     F710   Marine sciences The study of the coastal environment and mariculture.
     F720   Hydrography The collection and application of data about the sea, including surveying and the study of tides and currents.
     F730   Ocean sciences The study of oceans, the seabed and atmosphere. Includes oceanography. May include studies associated with physics, chemistry, geology and biology.
     F750   Environmental sciences The study of the terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environment and human interaction with it.
     F751   Applied environmental sciences Topics in Environmental Sciences of industrial or commercial importance.
     F752   Hydrology The study of bodies of water, their distribution and water resources.
     F753   Pollution control The study of monitoring with the intention to reduce the emission and distribution of noxious substances in the environment.
     F760   Climatology The study of secular weather conditions and climates.
     F761   Meteorology The study of atmospheric conditions related to weather conditions and forecasting.
     F770   Soil science The study of the properties of soils and the processes involved in their formation and distribution.
     F790   Science of aquatic & terrestrial environments not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Science of Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment categories. To be used sparingly.
     F800   Physical geographical sciences The spatially-related study of natural features of the earth. Includes topographical, physical, biological, environmental and information management concepts.
     F810   Environmental geography The investigation of the relationship between natural and human environments.
     F811   Biogeography The study of the geographical distribution of flora and fauna.
     F840   Physical geography The study of the physical processes underlying the features of the Earth's surface.
     F841   Maritime geography The geographical study of coastal and marine regions.
     F842   Geomorphology The study of the processes determining the topography of the Earth's crust.
     F843   Topography The description of the Earth's surface features and their mapping and surveying.
     F844   Cartography The preparation and production of maps and/or charts.
     F845   Remote sensing Topographic and geomatic data surveying carried out over a distance.
     F846   Geographical information systems The collection and transmission of geographical data using information technology.
     F890   Physical geographical sciences not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Physical Geographical Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.
     F900   Others in physical sciences Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Physical Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.
     F990   Physical sciences not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Physical Sciences

G Mathematical and computer sciences

     G000   Mathematical and computer sciences (Any use of this code will not pass validation).
     G010   Mathematical science Broadly based programmes in Mathematical Science.
     G020   Computer science Broadly based programmes in Computer Science.
     G100   Mathematics The rigorous analysis of quantities, magnitudes, forms and their relationships, using symbolic logic and language, both in its own right and as applied to other disciplines.
     G110   Pure mathematics The rigorous analysis of quantities, magnitudes, forms and their relationships, using symbolic logic and language.
     G120   Applied mathematics The application of mathematical principles to the solution of functional area problems.
     G121   Mechanics (mathematical) Branch of applied mathematics concerned with motion and the tendency to motion.
     G130   Mathematical methods The study of specific techniques for the precise solution of mathematical problems.
     G140   Numerical analysis The study of the mathematical methods used to obtain approximate (numerical) results to a problem on a digital computer.
     G150   Mathematical modelling The use of mathematical principles to construct simplified representations and simulations of 'real-world' processes, allowing calculations and predictions to be made.
     G160   Engineering/industrial mathematics Branch of mathematics concerned with the application of mathematical principles in the areas of engineering and industrial systems/processes.
     G190   Mathematics not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Mathematics categories. To be used sparingly.
     G200   Operational research The development and application of complex mathematical or simulation models to solve problems involving operational systems, where the system concerned is subject to human intervention.
     G290   Operational research not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Operational Research categories. To be used sparingly.
     G300   Statistics The study of the collection and analysis of numerical data.
     G310   Applied statistics The application of statistical techniques to functional areas.
     G311   Medical statistics The application of statistical techniques to the collection and analysis of numerical data relating to medicine.
     G320   Probability The mathematical study of chance.
     G330   Stochastic processes The mathematical study of systems and processes involving variables subject to random variations.
     G340   Statistical modelling The use of statistical techniques in the modelling and simulation of 'real-world' systems or processes.
     G350   Mathematical statistics Concerned with the mathematical theory and proofs forming the basis of probability and inference, and their applications to the collection, analysis and description of data.
     G390   Statistics not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Statistics categories. To be used sparingly.
     G400   Computer science The study of the design and application of electronic computer systems, including computer architectures, software and systems design.
     G410   Computer architectures & operating systems The study of the systemic structure of computer systems and the associated software which facilitates the efficient co-ordination and use of the component units.
     G411   Computer architectures The study of the systemic structure of computer systems.
     G412   Operating systems The study of software which is designed to facilitate the efficient co-ordination and use of system components.
     G420   Networks & communications The study of computer network systems and computer communications techniques/protocols.
     G430   Computational science foundations The study of the fundamental laws or principles underpinning the design, construction and use of computer systems.
     G440   Human-computer interaction The study, design and application of principles and techniques aimed at optimising the interaction between computer systems and their human users.
     G450   Multimedia computing science Area of Computer Science concerned with the computer controlled delivery of information in a variety of forms, including text, pictures, video, graphics and animation. Often associated with information presentation on the Internet.
     G490   Computer science not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Computer Science categories. To be used sparingly.
     G500   Information systems The study, design or application of computers systems which capture, process and transmit information.
     G510   Information modelling Concerned with the modelling of information flows within an organisation, and how these flows can be optimised and incorporated into the design of a large-scale computer system.
     G520   Systems design methodologies The study of standard methodologies for the design of large-scale computer systems.
     G530   Systems analysis & design The study of the principles and techniques for the design and implementation of large-scale computer systems.
     G540   Databases The study, design or application of information systems which act as structured repositories for large amounts of information.
     G550   Systems auditing The study and development of techniques for inspecting, correcting and verifying information systems.
     G560   Data management The management of computer systems which capture, process and transmit data.
     G590   Systems analysis & design not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Systems Analysis and Design categories. To be used sparingly.
     G600   Software engineering The study of techniques and principles for the design, construction, testing and maintenance of computer programs to satisfy the requirements of specific operational problems.
     G610   Software design Concerned with the design of computer instruction sets to satisfy the requirements of specific operational problems.
     G620   Programming Concerned with the conversion of designs into computer instruction sets in order to satisfy the requirements of specific operational problems.
     G621   Procedural programming Programming using procedural computer languages and environments, eg Pascal, Fortran, Cobol.
     G622   Object-oriented programming Programming using object-oriented programming languages and environments.
     G623   Declarative programming Programming using declarative programming languages, eg Prolog, Miranda.
     G690   Software engineering not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Software Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.
     G700   Artificial intelligence The study of principles and techniques for the computer-based simulation and modelling of intelligent animal behaviour patterns.
     G710   Speech & natural language processing The study of principles and techniques for the computer-based modelling and simulation of the human use of language.
     G720   Knowledge representation Concerned with principles and methodologies for the capture, representation, storage and application of human knowledge in a computer system.
     G730   Neural computing The study of computer-based hardware and software constructs which aim to model and simulate the salient features of animal nervous systems.
     G740   Computer vision The study and development of digital image perception.
     G750   Cognitive modelling The study and development of the processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
     G760   Machine learning The study and development of techniques whereby machines may gain knowledge through experience, deduction or reasoning.
     G761   Automated reasoning The study and development of techniques whereby machines may draw conclusions from facts and experience.
     G790   Artificial intelligence not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Artificial Intelligence categories. To be used sparingly.
     G900   Others in mathematical and computer sciences (Any use of this code will not pass validation).
     G910   Others in mathematical sciences Miscellaneous grouping for related mathematical subjects which do not fit into other Mathematical Sciences categories G1 to G3.
     G920   Others in computer sciences Miscellaneous grouping for related computing subjects which do not fit into other Computer Sciences categories G4 to G7.

H Engineering

     H100   General engineering The study of design, construction, maintenance and development of any device which uses the resources of nature to turn energy into productive and useful work.
     H110   Integrated engineering The study of different branches of engineering and how they may interrelate.
     H120   Safety engineering The study of engineering structures and the development and use of materials with particular emphasis on preventing injury or sickness.
     H121   Fire safety engineering The study of engineering structures and the development and use of materials with particular emphasis on preventing injury or damage through fire.
     H122   Water quality control The study of engineering structures and fluid mechanics with particular emphasis on improving and maintaining water supplies and the disposal of waste water. May include considerations of health, hygiene and recreational use.
     H123   Public health engineering The study of engineering principles, design and construction, with particular emphasis on public health and safety.
     H130   Computer-aided engineering The study and development of the use of computers with particular application to engineering problems. Includes aspects of software design and programming skills.
     H131   Automated engineering design The study and development of the use of computers with particular application to engineering development and design. Includes aspects of software design and programming skills.
     H140   Mechanics The study of the equilibrium of bodies or their motion within a particular frame of reference. May also be called Stress Analysis.
     H141   Fluid mechanics The study of the mechanical and flow properties of fluids. May also be called Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulics or Hydrodynamics. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H142   Solid mechanics The study of the mechanical and static properties of solids. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H143   Structural mechanics The study of the equilibrium and motion of structures either of themselves or influenced by forces outside them. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H150   Engineering design The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the development of electronic or manufacturing engineering tools.
     H190   General engineering not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other General Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.
     H200   Civil engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the designing and construction of public works, eg buildings, bridges, pipelines etc. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H210   Structural engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design and construction of physical shapes and forms. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H220   Environmental engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the sympathetic use of natural resources.
     H221   Energy resources The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the development and exploitation of various forms of energy, eg wind, water, solar etc. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H222   Coastal decay The study and principles of engineering as they apply to coastal and off-shore structures and the prevention of damage, decay and erosion to the natural environment. Includes the study and application of specialist mathematics
     H223   Environmental impact assessment The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the assessment and repair of insensitive environmental exploitation or natural upheaval.
     H230   Transport engineering The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the planning, development and construction of the routes for any form of terrestrial transport.
     H231   Permanent way engineering The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the planning, development and construction of the routes for rail transport.
     H232   Pavement engineering The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the planning, development and construction of the routes for road transport.
     H240   Surveying science The study and practice of measuring altitudes, angles and distances on the land surface so that they can be accurately plotted on a map. May include the use of satellite information. Includes the setting out on the ground of the positions of proposed structures.
     H241   General practice surveying The study and practice of measuring altitudes, angles and distances on the land surface in order to discover the land contours and plot constructions accordingly.
     H242   Engineering surveying The study and practice of measuring altitudes, angles and distances on the land surface in order to plan sites and constructions. Includes specialist underwater surveying techniques.
     H250   Geotechnical engineering The study and practice of discovering the formation, arrangement and structure of the rocks of the Earth's crust by means of sonic investigation. Includes the design of earth structures, eg dams and foundations of built structures.
     H290   Civil engineering not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Civil Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.
     H300   Mechanical engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, development manufacture and operation of machinery
     H310   Dynamics The study of the forces that change or produce the motion of bodies. May include the study of kinetics.
     H311   Thermodynamics The study of the interrelationship and interconversion of different forms of energy. Includes the study of the effects of pressure, temperature etc. May also be called Heat Exchange Technology. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H320   Mechanisms & machines The study of the assembly and structure of moving parts arranged to transmit or modify force in order to perform some function
     H321   Turbine technology The study of the conversion of the kinetic energy of a moving fluid via a rotating blade into mechanical energy. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H330   Automotive engineering The study of mechanical self propulsion in vehicles.
     H331   Road vehicle engineering The study of mechanical self propulsion in road vehicles.
     H332   Rail vehicle engineering The study of mechanical self propulsion in rail vehicles
     H333   Ship propulsion engineering The study of mechanical self propulsion in floating vessels.
     H340   Acoustics & vibration The study of oscillation and resonance.
     H341   Acoustics The study of sound and sound waves.
     H342   Vibration The study of periodic motion about an equilibrium position.
     H350   Offshore engineering The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the construction of structures sited in the sea and their interaction with wind and waves. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H360   Electromechanical engineering The study of electrically-operated mechanical devices.
     H390   Mechanical engineering not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous group for related subjects which do not fit into other Mechanical Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.
     H400   Aerospace engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to aircraft and spacecraft in the atmosphere and in space. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H410   Aeronautical engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of aircraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H411   Air passenger transport engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of passenger-carrying aircraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H412   Air freight transport engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of freight-carrying aircraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H413   Air combat engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of combat aircraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H420   Astronautical engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of spacecraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H430   Avionics The study of electronics as applied to aeronautics and astronautics. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics
     H440   Aerodynamics The study of the flow properties of gases, especially the forces acting on a body passing through air, and the interaction of the body's deformation with the flow. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H441   Flight mechanics The study of natural or constructed bodies in flight; how they are affected and influenced by forces outside them. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H450   Propulsion systems The study of aerospace locomotion and its driving force. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H460   Aviation studies The study of the technical aspects of flying and navigation.
     H490   Aerospace engineering not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Aerospace Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.
     H500   Naval architecture The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to ships and their reaction to water and its pressures. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H510   Shipbuilding The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of ships and boats. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H511   Surface passenger ship building The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of passenger-carrying ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialists mathematics.
     H512   Surface freight ship building The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of freight-carrying ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H513   Surface combat ship building The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of combat ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H514   Submarine building The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of ships which float on or under the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H520   Ship design The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of floating vessels. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H521   Surface passenger ship design The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of passenger-carrying ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H522   Surface freight ship design The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of freight-carrying ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H523   Surface combat ship design The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of combat ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H524   Submarine design The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of ships which float on or under the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H590   Naval architecture not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Naval Architecture categories. To be used sparingly.
     H600   Electronic & electrical engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the practical uses of electricity. Involves the study of charged particles.
     H610   Electronic engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to devices whereby electrons are conducted through a semi-conductor, free space or gas. Closely linked with electrical engineering.
     H611   Microelectronic engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to microcircuits.
     H612   Integrated circuit design The study of the most efficient processing of semiconductor material to form integrated circuits.
     H620   Electrical engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the practical uses of electrical systems. Involves the study of charged particles. Closely linked with electronic engineering.
     H630   Electrical power The study of the rates at which electrical energy is fed into or taken from a device or system. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.
     H631   Electrical power generation The study and development of techniques for producing electricity.
     H632   Electrical power distribution The study and development of electromotive forces and techniques for distributing electricity.
     H640   Communications engineering The study and principles of engineering as they apply to electronic engineering.
     H641   Telecommunications engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the telephonic or telegraphic communication of audio, video or other information (eg data) by means of radio waves, optical or electrical signals.
     H642   Broadcast engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the equipment required to transmit audio or video information for radio and/or television programmes.
     H643   Satellite engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to man-made devices orbiting the earth for communication purposes.
     H644   Microwave engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to electromagnetic radiation or very short length radio waves used for transmitting and collecting information.
     H650   Systems engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to an assembly of electrical, electronic and mechanical components with interdependent functions.
     H651   Digital circuit engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to discrete values of input and output voltage levels.
     H652   Analogue circuit engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to voltages or currents used to measure or represent quantities.
     H660   Control systems The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to electrical and electronic methods of measurement, regulation and operation.
     H661   Instrumentation control The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the electronic manipulation of tools.
     H662   Control by light systems The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the manipulation of tools by visible electromagnetic radiation.
     H670   Robotics & cybernetics The study of the relationship between biological systems and man-made systems designed and created to mimic them.
     H671   Robotics The study of designing, building and use of robots.
     H672   Cybernetics The study of control systems in electronic and mechanical devices and the extent to which comparisons can be made between man-made and biological systems.
     H673   Bioengineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design and manufacture of aids, such as artificial limbs, to rectify defective body functions.
     H674   Virtual reality engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to computer-generated environments.
     H680   Optoelectronic engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to devices in which an optical input produces electrical output or in which electrical stimulation produces visible, ultraviolet or infrared output.
     H690   Electronic & electrical engineering not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Electronic and Electrical Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.
     H700   Production & manufacturing engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the management and control of factory and
     H710   Manufacturing systems engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to electrical and electronic methods of manufacture.
     H711   Manufacturing systems design The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of new and/or replacement production-line technology.
     H712   Manufacturing installation systems The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design and installation of production-line technology.
     H713   Production processes The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to efficient application of production-line technology.
     H714   Manufacturing systems maintenance The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the maintenance of production-line technology.
     H720   Quality assurance engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the creation of models from which conclusions about real situations can be researched.
     H730   Mechatronics The study of electronics as applied to the development of symbiotic software/hardware technology.
     H790   Production & manufacturing engineering not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Production and Manufacturing Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.
     H800   Chemical, process & energy engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the industrial use and exploitation of chemical and atomic energy.
     H810   Chemical engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial processing to produce food, pharmaceuticals, plastics, petroleum products etc, and alternatives to them.
     H811   Biochemical engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial production of organic chemical compounds such as proteins and enzymes.
     H812   Pharmaceutical engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial preparation of drugs.
     H820   Atomic engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial use and development of atoms and atomic energy.
     H821   Nuclear engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial use and development of nuclear energy.
     H830   Chemical process engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial processes, particularly continuous ones, such as the production of petrochemicals.
     H831   Bioprocess engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to biological processes in industry.
     H840   Gas engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to gases and their production and use.
     H850   Petroleum engineering The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the extraction, processing and refining of petroleum.
     H890   Chemical, process & energy engineering not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Chemical, Process and Energy Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.
     H900   Others in engineering Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.
     H990   Engineering not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

J Technologies

     J100   Minerals technology The study of the production of minerals and metals and their separation from other elements contained within mineral deposits.
     J110   Mining The study of the extraction and processing of minerals and metals.
     J120   Quarrying The study of the extraction and processing of stone.
     J130   Rock mechanics The study of stress, elasticity, failure criteria and plasticity of the upper layers of the Earth's crust.
     J140   Minerals processing The processing of minerals and metals from their raw or ore states.
     J150   Minerals surveying The analysis of the Earth's upper crust for the purposes of identifying minerals and metals.
     J160   Petrochemical technology The extraction and processing of petrochemicals.
     J190   Minerals technology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Minerals Technology categories. To be used sparingly.
     J200   Metallurgy The study of the principles of minerals technology as they apply to the structure and properties of metals, their extraction, refining, alloys and manufacture. Involves practical element.
     J210   Applied metallurgy Topics in metallurgy of commercial or social importance.
     J220   Metallic fabrication The processes involved in the production and manufacture of metallic objects and structures.
     J221   Pattern making The precision cutting of metals for use in the production of objects and structures.
     J230   Corrosion technology The study and control of the corrosion of metals.
     J290   Metallurgy not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Metallurgy categories. To be used sparingly.
     J300   Ceramics & glass The study of the principles of minerals technology as they apply to clay and clay-based products. Stresses the use of the raw material rather than how it is extracted.
     J310   Ceramics The study of the principles of minerals technology as they apply to ceramics. Stresses the use of the raw material rather than how it is extracted.
     J320   Glass technology The study of the principles of minerals technology as they apply to glass and glass derivatives. Stresses the use of the raw material rather than how it is extracted.
     J390   Ceramics & glass not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Ceramics and Glass categories. To be used sparingly.
     J400   Polymers & textiles The study of molecular compounds or filaments. Stresses the use of the raw material rather than how it is extracted.
     J410   Polymers technology The use and development of polymers.
     J411   Plastics The use and development of plastics.
     J420   Textiles technology The use and development of textiles.
     J421   Textile chemistry The development of textiles from chemical compounds.
     J422   Dyeing & colouring of textiles The study of dyeing and colouring agents and their application to textiles.
     J430   Leather technology The study of the processing and use of leather. Includes tanning and methods of preserving leather.
     J431   Tanning The conversion of raw hide into leather.
     J440   Clothing production The study of the methods and processes used in the production of clothing.
     J441   Machine knitting The study of the programming and operation of knitting machines.
     J442   Commercial tailoring The making and adaptation of clothing to specific measurements.
     J443   Pattern cutting The design and cutting of patterns from cloth.
     J444   Millinery The design and production of hats.
     J445   Footwear production The design and production of footwear
     J490   Polymers & textiles not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Polymers and Textiles categories. To be used sparingly.
     J500   Materials technology not otherwise specified Grouping for any materials or materials-related technology which does not fit into the other Materials Technology categories.
     J510   Materials technology The processing, storage and production of materials.
     J511   Engineering materials The processing, storage and production of materials used in engineering.
     J512   Paper technology The processing, storage and production of paper and paper-based materials.
     J513   Furniture technology The processing, storage and production of materials used in furniture making.
     J520   Printing The study of the processes involved in printing.
     J521   Offset lithography The study of the processes involved in offset lithographic printing.
     J522   Photo-lithography The study of the processes involved in photo-lithography.
     J523   Reprographic techniques The study of the processes involved in reprographics.
     J524   Screen process printing The study of the processes involved in screen process printing.
     J530   Gemmology The processing, cutting and polishing of precious stones.
     J590   Materials technology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other, specified, Materials Technology categories. To be used sparingly.
     J600   Maritime technology The study of practical or mechanical sciences connected with the sea, involving marine technology, as it applies to industry or commerce.
     J610   Marine technology The processes and systems used in boats, ships and other marine craft.
     J611   Marine navigation The study of the specific processes involved in marine navigation.
     J612   Marine radar The use of radar in boats, ships and other marine craft.
     J613   Marine radio The use of radio and telecommunications systems in boats, ships and other marine craft.
     J614   Marine plumbing The use of plumbing systems in boats, ships and other marine craft.
     J690   Maritime technology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Maritime Technology categories. To be used sparingly.
     J700   Biotechnology The use of biological processes or organisms for the production of materials and services. Biotechnology includes the use of techniques for the improvement of the characteristics of economically important plants and animals and for the development of micro-organisms to act on the environment.
     J710   Plant biotechnology (crops, trees, shrubs etc.) Involves the molecular and microbial manipulation of plants.
     J720   Animal biotechnology Involves the molecular and microbial manipulation of animals.
     J730   Environmental biotechnology The integration of sciences and engineering in order to utilise the biochemical potential of microorganisms, plants and parts thereof for the restoration and preservation of the environment and for the sustainable use of resources.
     J740   Industrial biotechnology The use of plants, microorganisms and their constituent molecular and biochemical components for use in potentially large-scale applications in industry.
     J750   Medical biotechnology Biotechnology as applied to the development of human/veterinary diagnostic, therapeutic systems. Not Medical Technology.
     J790   Biotechnology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Industrial Biotechnology categories. To be used sparingly.
     J900   Others in technology Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Technologies categories. To be used sparingly.
     J910   Energy technologies Technologies involved in the production, transmission and storage of energy.
     J920   Ergonomics The study of the efficiency and effectiveness of the interface between people and machines.
     J930   Audio technology The study of the systems and processes used in the manipulation and amplification of sound. Includes the recording of sound and/or music.
     J931   Music recording The study of/training in the techniques required to obtain accurate and lifelike recordings of musical performances.
     J940   Machinery maintenance The techniques and skills involved in the routine maintenance of machines.
     J941   Office machinery maintenance The techniques and skills involved in the routine maintenance of office machinery.
     J942   Industrial machinery maintenance The techniques and skills involved in the routine maintenance of industrial machinery.
     J950   Musical instrument technology The study of the systems and processes used in the manufacture of musical instruments.
     J960   Transport logistics The study of the optimal methods of mass distribution services.
     J990   Technologies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Technology categories. To be used sparingly.

K Architecture, building and planning

     K100   Architecture The study of the design, construction and erection of structures. Combines design creativity with technical competence.
     K110   Architectural design theory Design of buildings for human activity, taking into account both internal and external environmental factors.
     K120   Interior architecture The study of enclosed spaces; design, implementation and materials.
     K130   Architectural technology The theory and practice of advanced techniques and new materials in architectural design and construction.
     K190   Architecture not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Architecture categories. To be used sparingly.
     K200   Building The study of building materials and techniques. Includes building and environment law and economics, architectural engineering and quantity surveying.
     K210   Building technology The understanding of building design and its relationship with production.
     K220   Construction management The implementation of construction projects to the client's specification from inception to completion.
     K230   Building surveying The analysis of a building's performance from design and construction, through to maintenance and repair.
     K240   Quantity surveying The financial management of project design and construction, whether for client or contractor.
     K250   Conservation of buildings The repair and restoration of old or damaged buildings.
     K290   Building not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Building categories. To be used sparingly.
     K300   Landscape design The study of the design, construction and management of land-based scenery. Includes buildings within The landscape and the habitat surrounding them.
     K310   Landscape architecture The scenic design of the natural environment and the layout of gardens and open spaces.
     K320   Landscape studies The planning and management of the built and natural environment as landscape.
     K390   Landscape design not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Landscape Design categories. To be used sparingly.
     K400   Planning (urban, rural & regional) The study of the interaction between town and country land use. Includes the use of land for building.
     K410   Regional planning The preparation of strategic plans for the development of a region.
     K420   Urban & rural planning The planning of the infrastructure and development of settlements, including new towns and the management of change.
     K421   Urban planning The planning of the infrastructure, development and management of settlement in towns.
     K422   Rural planning The planning of the infrastructure, development and management of settlement in the country.
     K430   Planning studies Reconciliation of the dynamics of the economic, environmental and social effects in the planning context.
     K440   Urban studies The interaction of the planning process and management policies on the built environment.
     K450   Housing The development and management of housing projects in the private and social sectors and in land use planning.
     K460   Transport planning The development and management of transportation systems.
     K490   Planning (urban, rural & regional) not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Planning (Urban, Rural and Regional) categories. To be used sparingly.
     K900   Others in architecture, building & planning Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Architecture, Building and Planning categories. To be used sparingly.
     K990   Architecture, building & planning not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Architecture, Building and Planning categories. To be used sparingly.

L Social studies

     L100   Economics The systematic study of the production, conservation and allocation of resources in conditions of scarcity, together with the organisational frameworks related to these processes.
     L110   Applied economics The study of the application of economic principles and analytical techniques to the study of particular industries, activities or the exploitation of particular resources.
     L111   Financial economics The study of the application of economic principles and analytical techniques in the area of finance.
     L112   Agricultural economics The study of the application of economic principles and analytical techniques in the area of agriculture.
     L113   Economic policy The study of the application of economic principles and analytical techniques in the area of government policy.
     L120   Microeconomics The study of the branch of economics concerned with particular commodities, firms or individuals and the economic relationships between them.
     L130   Macroeconomics The study of the economic environment within which firms and individuals may operate.
     L140   Econometrics The study of the systematic mathematical and statistical analysis of economic phenomena and problems.
     L150   Political economics The study of the branch of economics which deals with the economic implications of political policy.
     L160   International economics The systematic study and analysis of international commercial behaviour and trade policy.
     L170   Economic systems The study of economic systems based upon particular doctrines.
     L171   Capitalism The study of the economic system which is based upon the private ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange.
     L172   Monetarism The study of the system based upon the theory that an economy can be regulated by means of central control of the money supply.
     L173   Keynesianism The system based upon the idea that governments can manage economies by influencing the level of aggregate demand.
     L174   Collectivism The study of the system based upon the principle of ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange by the state, or the people.
     L190   Economics not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Economics categories. To be used sparingly.
     L200   Politics The study of activities related to the institution of the state and the machinery of government or the method through which social conflict is expressed and attempts to resolve conflict are made.
     L210   Political theories Collections of ideas that seek to explain the organisation of society and/or resolve conflicts within society.
     L211   Liberalism Political doctrine that emphasises the freedom of the individual and individual rights while minimising the need for external constraints.
     L212   Conservatism Political doctrine that emphasises the need for ordered control of society through the organisation of the state and the upholding of existing traditions and values.
     L213   Socialism Political doctrine that espouses social organisation of society based on co-operation, collectivism, egalitarianism and the communal ownership of the means of production.
     L214   Nationalism Political doctrine that promotes the self-determination of the nation.
     L215   Fascism Political doctrine that emphasises the dominance and the hierarchical authoritarian organisation of the state.
     L216   Feminism Political doctrine that highlights and attempts to reverse any inequalities in society based on gender differences.
     L217   Environmentalism Political doctrine that believes that human life can only be understood in the context of the natural world and that progress lies in the preservation of the natural environment.
     L218   Anarchism Political doctrine that advocates the abolition of central authority so that a more natural social order can develop.
     L220   Political systems The study of the organisation and functions of various methods of government.
     L221   Autocracy The system of government that embodies the rule of an individual with unrestricted authority.
     L222   Democracy The system of government based on the consent of the governed.
     L223   Plutocracy The system of government that embodies the rule of the wealthy.
     L224   Oligarchy The system of government that embodies the rule of the few over the many.
     L230   UK government/parliamentary studies The examination of the structure and function of the UK system of government.
     L231   Public administration The study of the functions and structure of those bodies concerned with the administrative duties of government.
     L232   UK constitutional studies The examination of the nature, content, implications and role of the UK constitution in the UK system of government.
     L240   International politics The study of political structures, functions and theories among the international community.
     L241   European Union politics The study of the structures, functions and theories of politics within the European Union.
     L242   Commonwealth politics The study of the structures, functions and theories of politics within the Commonwealth.
     L243   Politics of a specific country/region The study of the structures, functions and theories of politics within a specific country or region.
     L244   International constitutional studies The examination of the nature, content, implications and role of constitutions in international systems of government.
     L250   International relations The study of the interaction between members of the international community.
     L251   Strategic studies The study of strategies designed to promote and defend the autonomy and interests of a country within the international community.
     L252   War & peace studies The examination of the procedures and processes that contribute to war or peace.
     L260   Comparative politics The comparative study of differing political structures, political functions and political theories.
     L290   Politics not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Politics categories. To be used sparingly.
     L300   Sociology The systematic study of human social institutions and social relationships.
     L310   Applied sociology The study of the application of sociological principles and techniques to particular social institutions or types of social relationship.
     L320   Gender studies The study of the sociological influence of gender.
     L321   Women's studies The study of the role and influence of women in society.
     L322   Men's studies The study of the role and influence of men in society.
     L330   Ethnic studies The study of the sociological influence of ethnicity.
     L340   Disability in society The study of the sociological influence of disability.
     L350   Religion in society The study of the sociological influence of religion.
     L360   Socio-economics The study of the interrelationship between sociological and economic factors.
     L370   Social theory The study of the concept of social behaviour.
     L371   Social hierarchy The study of social stratification.
     L380   Political sociology The study of the sociological dimensions of politics.
     L390   Sociology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Sociology categories. To be used sparingly.
     L391   Sociology of science & technology The study of the influence of new scientific and technological developments on society.
     L400   Social policy The study of the policies of institutions which are designed to modify the balance of sociological factors.
     L410   UK social policy The study of the policies of UK institutions which are designed to modify the balance of sociological factors.
     L420   International social policy The study of the policies of international institutions which are designed to modify the balance of sociological factors.
     L430   Public policy The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to influence sociological factors.
     L431   Health policy The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to influence the public health of societies.
     L432   Welfare policy The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to provide support for vulnerable and under-privileged members of society.
     L433   Education policy The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to provide for the educational needs of society.
     L434   Transport policy The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to provide for the transportation needs of society.
     L435   Security policy The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to uphold and defend the structure and authority of the state.
     L490   Social policy not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Social Policy categories. To be used sparingly.
     L500   Social work The study of the organised means of providing basic support services for vulnerable/under-privileged individuals and/or groups.
     L510   Health & welfare The study of Social Work services aimed at support of the health and welfare of vulnerable/under-privileged individuals and/or groups.
     L520   Child care The study of Social Work services aimed at support of vulnerable/under-privileged children in society.
     L530   Youth work The study of Social Work services aimed at support of vulnerable/under-privileged youths in society.
     L540   Community work The study of Social Work services aimed at support of vulnerable/under-privileged people within particular communities in society.
     L550   Careers guidance The study of the provision of support services aimed at helping people to make informed and rational career decisions.
     L560   Probation/after-care The study of the provision of services aimed at supervising criminal offenders and supporting their rehabilitation into society following punishment.
     L590   Social work not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Social Work categories. To be used sparingly.
     L600   Anthropology The study of human beings, their antecedents and related primates, and their cultural behaviour and institutions, in comparative perspective.
     L610   Social & cultural anthropology The branch of Anthropology that deals with social phenomena such as kinship systems or beliefs.
     L620   Physical & biological anthropology The branch of Anthropology that deals with physical and biological factors in societies.
     L690   Anthropology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Anthropology categories. To be used sparingly.
     L700   Human & social geography The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life.
     L710   Human & social geography by area The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and To animal life in a particular area.
     L711   Human & social geography of Europe The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the European continent.
     L712   Human & social geography of Asia The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the Asian continent.
     L713   Human & social geography of Africa The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the African continent.
     L714   Human & social geography of Australasia The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the Australasian continent.
     L715   Human & social geography of the Americas The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the American continent.
     L716   Human & social geography of the Arctic/Antarctic The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the Arctic and Antarctic continents.
     L720   Human & social geography by topic The study of particular topics within Human and Social Geography.
     L721   Economic geography The study of the relationship between economic factors and the distribution and interaction of people with the natural environment.
     L722   Urban geography The study of the relationship between people and the environment in towns and cities.
     L723   Political geography The study of the influence of political factors in the distribution of populations and their effect on the environment.
     L724   Transport geography The study of the influence of travel and transport on populations and the environment.
     L725   Historical geography The study of earlier and continuing topographical, topological and social developments and their influence on populations and the environment.
     L726   Cultural geography The study of the influence of beliefs and value systems on populations and the environment.
     L727   Agricultural geography The study of agricultural influences on populations and the environment.
     L790   Human & social geography not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Human and Social Geography categories. To be used sparingly.
     L900   Others in social studies Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Social studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     L990   Social studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Social studies categories. To be used sparingly.

M Law

     M100   Law by area The study of the law as defined in particular geographic regions.
     M110   UK legal systems The study of the law of the United Kingdom.
     M111   English law The study of the Law of England.
     M112   Welsh law The study of the law of Wales.
     M113   Northern Irish law The study of the law of Northern Ireland.
     M114   Scottish law The study of the law of Scotland.
     M120   European Union law The study of European law.
     M130   Public international law The study of the law governing countries beyond the boundaries of the European Union.
     M140   Comparative law The study of different legal structures and systems.
     M190   Law by area not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Law by Area categories. To be used sparingly.
     M200   Law by topic The study of particular aspects of law.
     M210   Public law The study of the definition and application of public law.
     M211   Criminal law The study of the definition and application of criminal law.
     M220   Private law The study of the definition and application of private law.
     M221   Business & commercial law The study of the definition and application of business and commercial law.
     M222   Contract law The study of the law of contracts.
     M223   Property law The study of the law of property.
     M224   Torts The study of civil wrongs and injuries.
     M240   Jurisprudence The science or philosophy of law.
     M250   Legal practice The study of the duties and requirements of legal representation.
     M260   Medical law The study of the law relating to the practice of medicine.
     M290   Law by topic not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Law by Topic categories. To be used
     M900   Others in law Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Law categories. To be used sparingly.
     M990   Law not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Law categories. To be used sparingly.

N Business and administrative studies

     N100   Business studies The study of organisations and the environment in which they operate.
     N110   European business studies The study of organisations and their operations within Europe.
     N120   International business studies The study of organisations and their operations throughout the world.
     N190   Business studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Business studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     N200   Management studies The study of managing organisations.
     N210   Management techniques The specific techniques for managing an organisation.
     N211   Strategic management The techniques involved in the formation and implementation of a strategy within an organisation.
     N212   Creative management Techniques for creative problem solving and the management of creativity in others.
     N213   Project management The techniques specific to the planning, managing and monitoring of projects.
     N214   Change management The specific techniques involved in the planning and management of change within an organisation.
     N215   Organisational development The techniques involved in the development of an organisation’s physical and human resources, structure and culture.
     N220   Institutional management The study of the specific techniques required for the management of specific types of institutions.
     N223   Domestic management The specific management techniques involved in the management of homes for the elderly or infirm, childrens’ homes, and other care homes.
     N224   Management & organisation of education The study of the personnel and administration necessary for the efficient organisation of an education establishment. May include investigation of disparate subjects such as office skills, book-keeping, interpersonal skills, child welfare etc.
     N230   Land & property management The techniques involved in the management of land, buildings and similar physical resources.
     N231   Land management The techniques involved in the management of land.
     N232   Property management The techniques involved in the management of buildings and other structures.
     N234   Property valuation & auctioneering The specific techniques involved in the valuation and auctioneering of property.
     N240   Retail management The specific techniques involved in the management of retail outlets.
     N290   Management studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Management studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     N300   Finance The study of financial systems, regulations and reporting.
     N310   Banking The study of the banking industry.
     N320   Investment & insurance The study of the investment and insurance industries and the techniques used therein.
     N321   Investment The study of the investment industry and the techniques used therein.
     N322   Insurance The study of the insurance industry and the techniques used therein.
     N323   Actuarial science The application of statistical concepts within the financial industry.
     N330   Taxation The study of the rules and operations of taxation systems.
     N340   Financial management The study of the management of money, capital and credit.
     N341   Financial risk The study of the risks involved in the handling of money, capital and credit.
     N390   Finance not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Finance categories. To be used sparingly.
     N400   Accounting The study of the rules, standards and methods of financial accounting within organisations.
     N410   Accountancy The application of the rules, standards and methods of financial accounting within organisations.
     N411   Cost & management accountancy The application cost and management accounting techniques within organisations.
     N412   Public accountancy The application of accounting techniques that are specific to public sector organisations.
     N413   Book keeping The techniques involved in recording financial information within organisations.
     N420   Accounting theory The study of the theoretical basis of accounting practice.
     N421   Auditing of accounts The specific techniques involved in auditing financial accounts.
     N422   Financial reporting The study of specific techniques involved in explaining and disclosing transactions involving money, capital and credit.
     N490   Accounting not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Accounting categories. To be used sparingly.
     N500   Marketing The techniques involved in the management of an organisation’s relationship with its customers and the world at large.
     N510   Market research The specific techniques involved in the identification, definition and research of markets for an organisation’s products or services.
     N520   Sales management The specific techniques involved in the management of a sales function within an organisation.
     N530   Distribution The techniques involved in delivering a product or service to a customer or end user.
     N550   International marketing The specific techniques involved in marketing goods or services to other countries or cultures.
     N560   Promotion & advertising The techniques involved in the promotion and advertising of an organisation or an organisation's products.
     N561   Advertising The study of promotional displays, whether presented orally or visually, in order to sell items and services or to publicise events. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the production of the artwork and ideas themselves.
     N562   Corporate image The study of the way an organisation is perceived by its members and the public. Includes the impact of promotional displays in order subliminally to recall a particular company or product.
     N563   Sponsorship The study of the provision of funds for an activity or charity in order to gain publicity.
     N590   Marketing not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Marketing categories. To be used sparingly.
     N600   Human resource management The specific techniques involved in the management and development of an organisation's human resources.
     N611   Industrial relations The specific techniques involved in the management of people in a situation involving trade unions or similar staff organisations.
     N612   Staff development The specific techniques involved in the development of an organisation's human resources.
     N613   Training methods The study of specific techniques involved in teaching within a business environment.
     N614   Recruitment methods The study of specific techniques involved in recruitment.
     N620   Health & safety issues The study of issues relating to health and safety in the workplace.
     N690   Human resources management not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Human Resources Management categories. To be used sparingly.
     N700   Office skills The generic skills involved in organisational administration.
     N710   Office administration The skills involved in office administration and management.
     N720   Secretarial & typing skills Generic secretarial skills.
     N721   Audio typing The typing of documents from a spoken source.
     N722   Shorthand & shorthand transcription Study of shorthand writing and transcription back into normal English.
     N790   Office skills not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Office skills categories. To be used sparingly.
     N800   Hospitality, leisure, tourism & transport The study of travel, event management, tourism, transport, hospitality, recreation, sport and leisure.
     N810   Travel management The specific study of the travel industry, its structure, regulation and distribution methods.
     N820   Event management The study of managing one-off events such as conferences, shows and visits.
     N830   Tourism The study of UK and international tourism
     N831   Tourism studies The study of the impact and development of tourism
     N832   Tourism management The study of the management of tourism
     N850   Transport studies The study of the organisation and management of transport systems.
     N851   Land travel The study of the organisation and management of land-based transport systems. Includes transport by rivers, lakes and canals.
     N852   Sea travel The study of the organisation and management of salt-water transport systems.
     N853   Air travel The study of the organisation and management of air transport systems.
     N860   Hospitality The study of the provision of food, drink and accommodation in a service context. Includes event management.
     N861   Hospitality studies The study of the nature and provision of hospitality.
     N862   Hospitality management The study of the hospitality industry and its management.
     N870   Recreation, sport & leisure studies The study of the nature, provision and impact of recreation, leisure and sport, and their management and development.
     N890   Hospitality, leisure, tourism & transport not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Hospitality, Leisure, Tourism, and Transport categories. To be used sparingly.
     N900   Others in business & administrative studies Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Business and Administrative studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     N990   Business & administrative studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Business and Administrative categories. To be used sparingly.

P Mass Communications and Documentation

     P100   Information services The study of the administration of information resources and services. Includes the collection, sorting and ordering of data and information. Encompasses the cataloguing of sources and the arrangement of archives. May include care, management and organisation of exhibits.
     P110   Information management The study of the specification, use and availability of information services.
     P120   Librarianship The training of professional library staff in the administration of library resources and services.
     P121   Library studies The study of the professional administration of library resources and services. Includes the collecting and cataloguing of information and archives.
     P130   Curatorial studies The training of professional museum staff in the administration of museum resources and services.
     P131   Museum studies The study of the professional administration of museum resources and services. May include the care, management and organisation of exhibits
     P132   Archive studies The study of the professional administration of archive resources and services. Includes the collecting and cataloguing of information.
     P190   Information services not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Information Services categories. To be used sparingly
     P200   Publicity studies The study of the transmission of information and/or knowledge. Includes study of the techniques of attracting attention. May include media practices and production, cultural differences and communication on an individual, group or national basis.
     P210   Public relations The study of creating, promoting and maintaining a favourable image among the public towards an individual or organisation.
     P290   Publicity studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Publicity studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     P300   Media studies The study of communication between people through broadcasting, cinema, the press and by electronic means. May involve the study of the media industry, technical innovations and the role of audiences.
     P301   Television studies The study of communication between people through television. May involve study of the television industry, technical innovations and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the production of the artwork and ideas themselves.
     P302   Radio studies The study of communication between people through radio. May involve study of the radio industry, technical innovations and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the production of the artwork and ideas themselves.
     P303   Film studies The study of communication between people through film. May involve study of the film industry, technical innovations and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the production of the artwork and ideas themselves.
     P304   Electronic media studies The study of the communication of people through electronic media. May involve study of the internet, worldwide web, technical innovations and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the equipment and technology.
     P305   Paper-based media studies The study of the communication between people through paper-based media. May involve the study of books, newspapers and magazines, technical development and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the printing and technical expertise.
     P310   Media production The study of the organisation and presentation of media events.
     P311   Television production The study of the organisation and presentation of events on television.
     P312   Radio production The study of the organisation and presentation of events on radio.
     P313   Film production The study of the organisation and presentation of events on film.
     P390   Media studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Media studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     P400   Publishing The study of the production, distribution and sale of information made available by printed, electronic or other means.
     P410   Electronic publishing The study of the production, distribution and sale of information by electronic means.
     P411   Publishing on audio/video tape The study of the production, distribution and sale of information on audio/video tape.
     P412   Publishing on CD-ROM The study of the production, distribution and sale of information on CD-ROM.
     P413   Publishing via the World Wide Web The study of the production, distribution and sale of information via the world wide web.
     P420   Multimedia publishing The study of the production, distribution and sale of information in a variety of ways, in sequence or parallel.
     P430   Interactive publishing The study of the production, distribution and sale of information which the recipient, with the right equipment, is able to interrogate and manipulate.
     P490   Publishing not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Publishing categories. To be used sparingly.
     P500   Journalism The study of reporting, photographing and editing news stories. Includes the ownership and control of the press and the power it conveys. Also includes study of political, ethical and economic influences.
     P510   Factual reporting The study of the dissemination of factual information.
     P590   Journalism not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Journalism categories. To be used sparingly.
     P900   Others in mass communications & documentation Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Mass Communications and Documentation categories. To be used sparingly.
     P990   Mass communications & documentation not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Mass Communications and Documentation categories. To be used sparingly.

Q Linguistics, classics and related subjects

     Q100   Linguistics The study of the nature of language, its development and acquisition. May involve some study of human vocal anatomy.
     Q110   Applied linguistics The investigation of the acquisition of language and how to improve it. Includes study of language impairment and how to remedy it. Also includes Language Pathology.
     Q120   Historical linguistics The study of the structure and development of languages, now dead, which form the root of modern languages. May also be called Philology.
     Q130   Phonetics & phonology The study of speech and language from the point of view of sound analysis.
     Q131   Phonetics The study of speech processes, including the production, perception and analysis of speech sound. Includes speech acoustics, anatomy and physiology.
     Q132   Phonology The study of the sound systems of languages.
     Q140   Sociolinguistics The study of socially-conditioned factors in language and language use.
     Q150   Psycholinguistics The study of cognition and the effects of psychology on linguistic understanding and ability.
     Q190   Linguistics not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Linguistics categories. To be used sparingly.
     Q200   Comparative literary studies The study of the writers, literatures and literary history of various countries and languages using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q210   Literature in translation The study, analysis and interpretation of literature translated into a language other than the one in which it was originally written.
     Q220   Literature in its original language The study, analysis and interpretation of literature written in a language other than English.
     Q290   Comparative literary studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Comparative Literary studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     Q300   English studies The study of the English language and literature originally written in English using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. May involve studying the structure of the language, its history, grammar and use.
     Q310   English language The study of the history, grammar and use of English. Includes pronunciation and articulation.
     Q320   English literature The study of literature originally written in English. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q321   English literature by period The study of English Literature written within a particular chronological period.
     Q322   English literature by author The study of the works of a particular author of English Literature.
     Q323   English literature by topic The study of English Literature written describing particular cultures, societies, skills, periods of history, etc.
     Q330   English as a second language The study of the structure and acquisition of English from the point of view of a non-native speaker. Includes pronunciation and articulation.
     Q340   English literature written as a second language The study of English Literature written by authors whose native language is not English.
     Q390   English studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other English studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     Q400   Ancient language studies The study of ancient languages, their structure and semantics. May involve investigation into their linguistic, social and/or religious significance and their position as the basis for modern languages.
     Q410   Ancient Egyptian The study of the structure, semantics, cultural significance and hieroglyphics of ancient Egyptian.
     Q411   Coptic The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the Afro-Asiatic language descended from ancient Egyptian and surviving in the Coptic church.
     Q420   Classical Arabic The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of classical Arabic.
     Q430   Akkadian The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the East Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language used in central Mesopotamia.
     Q440   Sumerian The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the language of the Sumer civilisation which bears no known relationship to any other language.
     Q450   Sanskrit The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the oldest recorded branch of the Indic branch of the Indo-European ancient language of India.
     Q460   Prakrit The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the ancient vernacular language of India.
     Q470   Aramaic The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the ancient language of the Middle-East.
     Q480   Hebrew The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the ancient language of the Jews.
     Q490   Ancient language studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Ancient Language studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     Q500   Celtic studies The study of Celtic culture and its literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. Involves language study and/or comparison between languages.
     Q510   Ancient Celtic studies The study of ancient Celtic culture and its literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. Involves language study and/or comparison between languages.
     Q520   Modern Celtic studies The study of modern Celtic culture and its literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. Involves language study and/or comparison between languages.
     Q521   Goidelic group of languages The study of the northern group of Celtic languages, consisting of Scottish and Irish Gaelic and Manx. Involves study and comparison of literature and languages. May also be called Goidhelic or Gadhelic.
     Q522   Brythonic group of languages The study of the southern group of Celtic languages, consisting of Welsh, Cornish and Breton. Involves study and comparison of literature and languages. May also be called Brittonic.
     Q530   Scottish Gaelic The study of the history, grammar and use of Scottish Gaelic. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q531   Scottish Gaelic literature The study of literature originally written in Scottish Gaelic. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q540   Irish Gaelic The study of the history, grammar and use of Irish Gaelic. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q541   Irish Gaelic literature The study of literature originally written in Irish Gaelic. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q550   Manx The study of the history, grammar and use of Manx. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q551   Manx literature The study of literature originally written in Manx. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q560   Welsh The study of the history, grammar and use of Welsh. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q561   Welsh literature The study of literature originally written in Welsh. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation
     Q570   Cornish The study of the history, grammar and use of Cornish. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q571   Cornish literature The study of literature originally written in Cornish. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q580   Breton The study of the history, grammar and use of the language of Brittany. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q581   Breton literature The study of literature originally written in Breton. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q590   Celtic studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Celtic studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     Q600   Latin studies The study of Latin, its structure, history, grammar and use. May involve investigation into its relationship with modern day speech and language. May also involve the study of literature texts using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q610   Latin language The study of the history, grammar and use of Latin. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q611   Church Latin The study of the history, grammar and use of ecclesiastical Latin and how it differs from standard Latin. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q612   Medieval Latin The study of the history and grammar of vernacular Latin used in legal documents and how it differs from standard Latin. Includes acquisition and individual written forms.
     Q620   Latin literature The study of literature originally written in Latin. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q630   Latin literature in translation The study of literature originally written in Latin and translated into English. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q690   Latin studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Latin studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     Q700   Classical Greek studies The study of Classical Greek, its structure, history, grammar and use. May involve investigation into its relationship with modern day speech and language. May also involve the study of language texts using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q710   Classical Greek language The study of the history, grammar and use of Classical Greek. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q711   Classical Church Greek The study of the history, grammar and use of ecclesiastical Classical Greek and how it differs from standard Classical Greek. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q712   Late Greek The study of the history, grammar and use of the Greek used in Eastern churches and how it differs from standard Classical Greek. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     Q720   Classical Greek literature The study of literature originally written in Classical Greek. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q730   Classical Greek literature in translation The study of literature originally written in Classical Greek and translated into English. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     Q790   Classical Greek studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Classical Greek studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     Q800   Classical studies Study of the civilisation of Ancient Greece and Rome. May involve investigation into their relationship with modern day civilisation.
     Q890   Classical studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Classical studies categories. To be used sparingly
     Q900   Others in linguistics, classics & related subjects Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Linguistics, Classics and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.
     Q910   Translation studies The study, analysis and interpretation of the techniques of translation from one language into another.
     Q920   Translation theory The study, analysis and interpretation of the processes of translation from one language into another.
     Q990   Linguistics, classics & related subjects not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Others in Linguistics, Classics and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

R European languages, literature and related subjects

     R100   French studies The study of the French Language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of French culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R110   French language The study of the French language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R120   French literature The study of French literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R130   French society & culture The study of French society and culture.
     R190   French studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other French studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     R200   German studies The study of the German language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of German culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R210   German language The study of the German language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R220   German literature The study of German literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R230   German society & culture The study of German society and culture.
     R290   German studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other German studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     R300   Italian studies The study of the Italian language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Italian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R310   Italian language The study of the Italian language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R320   Italian literature The study of Italian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R330   Italian society & culture The study of Italian society and culture.
     R390   Italian studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Italian studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     R400   Spanish studies The study of the Spanish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Spanish culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R410   Spanish language The study of the Spanish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R411   Spanish languages in other countries The study of the Spanish language, specific to its structure, history, grammar and use in countries other than Spain.
     R420   Spanish literature The study of Spanish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R430   Spanish society & culture The study of Spanish society and culture.
     R490   Spanish studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Spanish studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     R500   Portuguese studies The study of the Portuguese language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Portuguese culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R510   Portuguese language The study of the Portuguese language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R511   Portuguese languages in other countries The study of the Portuguese language, specific to its structure, history, grammar and use in countries other than Portugal.
     R520   Portuguese literature The study of Portuguese literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R530   Portuguese society & culture The study of Portuguese society and culture.
     R590   Portuguese studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Portuguese studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     R600   Scandinavian studies The study of Scandinavian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Scandinavian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R610   Scandinavian languages The study of Scandinavian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R611   Swedish language The study of the Swedish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R612   Norwegian language The study of the Norwegian language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R613   Finnish language The study of the Finnish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R614   Danish language The study of the Danish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R620   Scandinavian literature The study of Scandinavian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R621   Swedish literature The study of Swedish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R622   Norwegian literature The study of Norwegian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R623   Finnish literature The study of Finnish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R624   Danish literature The study of Danish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R630   Scandinavian society & culture The study of Scandinavian society and culture.
     R631   Swedish society & culture The study of Swedish society and culture.
     R632   Norwegian society & culture The study of Norwegian society and culture.
     R633   Finnish society & culture The study of Finnish society and culture.
     R634   Danish society & culture The study of Danish society and culture.
     R690   Scandinavian studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Scandinavian studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     R700   Russian & East European studies The study of Russian and East European languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Russian and East European culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R710   Russian & East European languages The study of Russian and East European languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R711   Russian language The study of the Russian language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R712   Polish language The study of the Polish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation
     R713   Czech language The study of the Czech language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R720   Russian & east european Literature The study of Russian and East European literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R721   Russian literature The study of Russian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R722   Polish literature The study of Polish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R723   Czech literature The study of Czech literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R730   Russian & east european society & culture The study of Russian and East European society and culture.
     R731   Russian society & culture The study of Russian society and culture.
     R732   Polish society & culture The study of Polish society and culture.
     R733   Czech society & culture The study of Czech society and culture.
     R790   Russian & east european studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Russian and East European studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     R800   European studies The study of European languages, institutions and society, which can take a broadly comparative approach or can be focused on either individual countries or the European Union. Usually involves the study of at least one modern language, and one or more of history, politics, international relations, economics, geography, sociology and law. In some universities, courses in cultural studies are also included.
     R900   Others in European languages, literature & related subjects Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other European Languages, Literature and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.
     R910   Other European languages The study of other European languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     R911   Dutch The study of the Dutch language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Dutch culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R912   Flemish The study of the Flemish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Flemish culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R920   Other European literature The study of other European literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     R930   Other European societies & cultures The study of other European societies and cultures.
     R990   European languages, literature & related subjects not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in European Languages, Literature and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

T Eastern, Asiatic, African, American and Australasian languages, literature and related subjects

     T100   Chinese studies The study of Chinese languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Chinese culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T110   Chinese language studies The study of Chinese languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     T120   Chinese literature studies The study of Chinese literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T130   Chinese society & culture studies The study of Chinese society and culture.
     T190   Chinese studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Chinese studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     T200   Japanese studies The study of Japanese languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Japanese culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T210   Japanese language studies The study of Japanese languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     T220   Japanese literature studies The study of Japanese literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T230   Japanese society & culture studies The study of Japanese society and culture.
     T290   Japanese studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Japanese studies. To be used sparingly.
     T300   South Asian studies The study of South Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of South Asian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T310   South Asian language studies The study of South Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     T320   South Asian literature studies The study of South Asian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T330   South Asian society & culture studies
     T390   South Asian studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other South Asian studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     T400   Other Asian studies The study of other Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of other Asian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T410   Other Asian language studies The study of other Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.
     T420   Other Asian Literature Studies The study of other Asian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T430   Other Asian society & culture studies The study of other Asian societies and cultures.
     T490   Other Asian studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Other Asian Studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     T500   African studies The study of the acquisition of African languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of African culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T510   African language studies The study of African languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.
     T520   African literature studies The study of African literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T530   African society & culture studies The study of African societies and cultures.
     T590   African studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other African studies categories. To be used sparingly
     T600   Modern Middle Eastern studies The study of the acquisition of the modern Middle-Eastern languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.
     T610   Modern Middle Eastern language studies The study of modern Middle-Eastern languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.
     T620   Modern Middle Eastern literature studies The study of modern Middle-Eastern literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T630   Modern Middle Eastern society & culture studies The study of modern Middle-Eastern societies and cultures.
     T690   Modern Middle Eastern studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Modern Middle-Eastern studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     T700   American studies The study of the acquisition of American languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of American culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T710   American language studies The study of American languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.
     T711   Latin American language studies The study of Latin American languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.
     T720   American literature studies The study of American literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T721   Latin American literature studies The study of Latin American literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T730   American society & culture studies The study of American societies and cultures.
     T731   Latin American society & culture studies The study of Latin American societies and cultures.
     T790   American studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other American studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     T800   Australasian studies The study of the acquisition of Australasian and South West Pacific languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Australasian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T810   Australasian language studies The study of Australasian and South West Pacific languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.
     T820   Australasian literature studies The study of Australasian and South West Pacific literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T830   Australasian society & culture studies The study of Australasian and South West Pacific societies and cultures.
     T890   Australasian studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related studies which do not fit into the other Australasian studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     T900   Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian languages, literature & related subjects Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Eastern, Asiatic, African, American and Australasian languages, Literature and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.
     T910   Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian languages The study of other Eastern, Asiatic, African American and Australasian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.
     T920   Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian literature The study of other Eastern, Asiatic, African American and Australasian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.
     T930   Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian societies & culture The study of other Eastern, Asiatic, African American and Australasian societies and cultures.
     T990   Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian languages, literature Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African American and Australasian Languages, Literature and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

V Historical and philosophical studies

     V100   History by period Recording and interpreting past events and social and political developments chronologically.
     V110   Ancient history Historical studies of the period, including classical history, between c.C7th BC to c.C1st AD.
     V120   Byzantine history Historical studies of the period between c.C1st AD to c.C7th AD.
     V130   Medieval history Historical studies of the period between c.700 AD to c.1550 AD.
     V140   Modern history Historical studies of the period c.1550 AD to the present.
     V141   Modern history 1500-1599 Historical studies of the period 1500-1599.
     V142   Modern history 1600-1699 Historical studies of the period 1600-1699.
     V143   Modern history 1700-1799 Historical studies of the period 1700-1799.
     V144   Modern history 1800-1899 Historical studies of the period 1800-1899.
     V145   Modern history 1900-1919 Historical studies of the period 1900-1919. Includes World War I studies.
     V146   Modern history 1920-1949 Historical studies of the period 1920-1949. Includes World War II studies.
     V147   Modern history 1950-1999 Historical studies of the period 1950-1999.
     V148   Modern history 2000-2099 Historical studies of the period 2000-2099.
     V190   History by period not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the others in History by Period. To be used sparingly.
     V200   History by area Recording and interpreting past events and social and political developments geographically.
     V210   British history Historical studies focusing on the British Isles.
     V211   Irish history Historical studies of Ireland.
     V212   Scottish history Historical studies of Scotland.
     V213   Welsh history Historical studies of Wales.
     V214   English history Historical studies of England.
     V220   European history Historical studies focusing on continental Europe.
     V221   French history Historical studies of France.
     V222   German history Historical studies of Germany.
     V223   Italian history Historical studies of Italy.
     V224   Iberian history Historical studies of Spain and Portugal.
     V225   Russian history Historical studies of Russia.
     V230   American history Historical studies of the Americas.
     V231   Canadian history Historical studies of Canada.
     V232   USA history Historical studies of the United States of America.
     V233   South American history Historical studies of South and Latin America.
     V234   Central American history Historical studies of Central America.
     V240   Asian history Historical studies of continental Asia.
     V241   Chinese history Historical studies of China.
     V242   Indian history Historical studies of the Indian sub-continent.
     V243   South East Asian history Historical studies of South East Asia.
     V250   African history Historical studies of continental Africa.
     V251   North African history Historical studies of North Africa.
     V252   Central African history Historical studies of Central and Equatorial Africa.
     V253   Southern African history Historical studies of Southern Africa including South Africa.
     V254   East African history Historical studies of East Africa.
     V255   West African history Historical studies of West Africa.
     V260   Australasian history Historical studies of the continent of Australasia.
     V261   Australian history Historical studies of Australia.
     V262   New Zealand history Historical studies of New Zealand.
     V270   World history Historical studies considered globally.
     V271   International history Historical studies of relations between nation states.
     V290   History by area not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the others in History by Area categories. To be used sparingly.
     V300   History by topic The study of recording, interpreting and comparing developments of particular skills, artefacts, cultures or other areas of interest.
     V310   Economic history Study of the growth and development of economies in history. May include the study of industrialisation.
     V320   Social history The interpretation of the underlying processes of change in society. Includes the study of the growth and development of societies in history.
     V321   Local history Social historical study of a particular locality such as a town or village.
     V322   Oral history The study of spoken records as historical evidence.
     V323   Family history Genealogical study of family or personal descent.
     V330   History of religions Historical study of religious movements and their interaction with other cultures.
     V340   Intellectual history The history of ideas and the study of intellectual movements.
     V350   History of art Historical study of developments in the arts and consideration of art history methods and techniques. Includes the enhancement of visual awareness and expertise as an aspect of cultural history.
     V360   History of architecture Historical study of building design and architectural movements.
     V370   History of design Historical study of design styles and movements.
     V380   History of science Investigation of the historical development of the sciences in their economic and cultural context. Includes the influence of non-scientific factors and the impact of science on society.
     V381   History of physics Historical studies of natural philosophy and the physical sciences.
     V382   History of chemistry Historical studies of the chemical sciences.
     V383   History of mathematics Historical studies of the mathematical sciences.
     V390   History by topic not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the others in History by Topic categories. To be used sparingly.
     V391   Military history Historical studies of the development of armed forces and their deployment in warfare.
     V400   Archaeology The study of human prehistory, development of early societies and the emergence of civilisation. Includes socio-historical analysis of the material remains from excavations of past cultures to reconstruct and understand the past.
     V410   Egyptology The archaeological study of the civilisations of ancient Egypt.
     V420   Stone Age The archaeology of the period of human culture characterised by the making and use of stone implements and artefacts.
     V430   Bronze Age The archaeology of the period of human culture characterised by the making and use of bronze implements and artefacts, c. 4500BC - 500BC.
     V440   Iron Age The archaeology of the period of human culture characterised by the making and use of iron implements and artefacts, c.1100 - C1st AD.
     V450   Archaeological conservation Methods of preserving artefacts from excavations for retrieval and analysis of archaeological information.
     V460   Archaeological techniques Methods of surveying, field archaeology and paleography.
     V490   Archaeology not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the others in Archaeology categories. To be used sparingly.
     V500   Philosophy The critical examination of fundamental beliefs about meaning, truth and reality, right and wrong.
     V510   Metaphysics Consideration of the problems in the theories of being and thought.
     V511   Epistemology The study of the theory of knowledge.
     V520   Moral philosophy The study of the concept of morality and codes of behaviour.
     V530   Scholastic philosophy Consideration of philosophical thought of the medieval period.
     V540   Social philosophy Consideration of philosophical questions about an individual's responsibility and obligations to society.
     V550   Philosophy of science The study of the philosophy of the Sciences, including scientific methodology, the nature of scientific knowledge and the use of formal logic.
     V560   Mental philosophy The study of the philosophy of thinking and the mind.
     V590   Philosophy not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Philosophy categories. To be used sparingly.
     V600   Theology & religious studies The study of the nature of divinity and of beliefs in their social context.
     V610   Theology Interpretation of doctrinal concepts such as faith, revelation and grace.
     V620   Religious studies Identification and classification of religions and the comparative study of the world's religious traditions.
     V621   Christian studies The theory and practice of Roman Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox and other Christian denominations.
     V622   Islamic studies The theory and practice of Islam.
     V623   Judaism The theory and practice of the Jewish religion.
     V624   Hinduism The theory and practice of the Hindu religious tradition.
     V625   Buddhism The theory and practice of the Buddhist religious tradition.
     V626   Other Asian religious studies The theory and practice of other Asian religions.
     V627   Comparative religious studies The comparative study of different religious beliefs, customs and observations.
     V630   Divinity Investigation into the nature of a deity and other divine beings.
     V640   Religious writings The study and interpretation of religious writings in their historical, theological and philosophical contexts.
     V641   The Bible & Christian texts Includes study of the Old and New Testaments, the apocryphal writings and patristic exegesis.
     V642   The Qur'an & Islamic texts Includes study of the Qu'ran (Koran) and interpretation of Sharia.
     V643   The Torah & Judaic texts Includes study of the Torah and Talmudic interpretation.
     V644   Asian religious texts Includes study of the Bhagavad-Gita, Tripitaka, Vedic, Taoist and Confucian texts.
     V645   Comparative religious texts Critical interpretation, comparison and analysis of religious texts.
     V650   Pastoral studies The study of religious practice in its social setting. It includes the work of the Ministry in religious education.
     V690   Theology & religious studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Theology and Religious studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     V900   Others in historical & philosophical studies Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Historical and Philosophical studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     V990   Historical & philosophical studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Historical and Philosophical studies categories. To be used sparingly.

W Creative arts and design

     W100   Fine art The aesthetic representation in one medium of what is reality in another. Encompasses all artistic media.
     W110   Drawing The study of/training in the expression of emotions, ideas or views of reality through representation by lines on a surface. Includes the use of such media as pen & ink, pencil, charcoal, pastel etc.
     W120   Painting The study of/training in the expression of emotions, ideas or views of reality through representation by the application of paints and chemical colour substances to canvasses or other materials.
     W130   Sculpture The representation of reality using three-dimensional media, eg stone, metal, wood etc.
     W140   Printmaking The study of/training in the expression of emotions, ideas or views of reality by rendering art concepts onto surfaces and transferring images, via ink or dyes, onto paper or fabric.
     W150   Calligraphy The study of/training in the artistic construction of hand-written text.
     W160   Fine art conservation The study of the conservation, protection and restoration of fine art artefacts.
     W190   Fine art not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Fine Art categories. To be used sparingly.
     W200   Design studies The study of design for everyday objects, taking into account technology and commerce as well as appearance and current art thinking. May involve the use of computers as design tools.
     W210   Graphic design The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques effectively to communicate ideas and information to business and consumer audiences via forms of printed media.
     W211   Typography The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques in the design and production of printed matter.
     W212   Multimedia design The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques in design using a variety of materials.
     W213   Visual communication The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques in design to impart information.
     W220   Illustration The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques effectively to communicate ideas and information to business and consumer audiences via drawn or painted images.
     W230   Clothing/fashion design The study of/training in the design and use of textiles and other materials to create items of apparel.
     W231   Textile design The study of/training in the design of textiles.
     W240   Industrial/product design The study of/training in the design of industrial and consumer products to meet aesthetic, functional and commercial requirements.
     W250   Interior design The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques in the planning, designing, equipping and furnishing of residential, commercial and public interior spaces.
     W260   Furniture design The study of/training in the design of furniture for residential, commercial and public environments.
     W270   Ceramics design The study of/training in the design of ceramic artefacts.
     W280   Interactive & electronic design The study of/training in the design of non-static computer-generated images.
     W290   Design studies not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Design studies categories. To be used sparingly.
     W300   Music The study of melody, harmony and rhythm produced in accordance with specified patterns and sequences. May include performance, theory and history of music.
     W310   Musicianship/performance studies The study of/training in the mastering of musical instruments and performing art as solo and/or ensemble performers.
     W330   History of music The study of the historical development of music and musical styles.
     W340   Types of music The study of specific types and variants of musical genres.
     W350   Musicology The systematic study of the forms and methods of music art, and the functions of music in societies and cultures.
     W360   Musical instrument history Historical studies of the development of musical instruments in the context of changing styles of playing and performance
     W390   Music not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Music categories. To be used sparingly.
     W400   Drama The study of and/or training in acting and stagecraft. May include the study of theatre management and the supervision and production of scenery, costume, lighting etc.
     W410   Acting The study of/training in the communication of dramatic information, ideas, moods, and feelings through the achievement of naturalistic and believable behaviour in imaginary circumstances
     W420   Directing for theatre The study of/training in the supervision and direction of dramatic performances.
     W430   Producing for theatre The study of/training in the techniques and principles involved in the production of theatrical performances other
     W440   Theatre studies The study of the technical aspects of theatrical performances.
     W450   Stage management The study of/training in the management of lighting, props, scenery and other technical items associated with theatrical performances.
     W451   Theatrical wardrobe design The study of/training in the design of costumes for theatrical performances.
     W452   Theatrical make-up The study of/training in the application of make-up and/or face and body paints for theatrical performances.
     W460   Theatre design The study of the design of theatres and theatre productions.
     W461   Stage design The study of the design of sets and scenery for use in theatres, film and television.
     W490   Drama not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Drama categories. To be used sparingly.
     W500   Dance The study of and/or training in the movement of the body, particularly in time to music. May include some study of/training in music and/or drama.
     W510   Choreography The study of/training in the arrangement and planning of staged dance.
     W520   Body awareness The study of the human body in relation to its capabilities in generating artistic forms in dance.
     W530   History of dance The study of the development of dance in societies and cultures.
     W540   Types of dance The study of/training in the specific styles and genres of dance.
     W590   Dance not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Dance categories. To be used sparingly.
     W600   Cinematics & photography The study of all aspects of film making.
     W610   Moving image techniques The study of the techniques and principles associated with the production of moving image sequences.
     W611   Directing motion pictures The study of/training in the direction and arrangement of equipment and actors in the production of a moving image sequence.
     W612   Producing motion pictures The study of/training in all aspects of the production of a moving image sequence other than acting and directing.
     W613   Film & sound recording The study of/training in the recording of audio and video elements in the production of a moving image sequence.
     W614   Visual & audio effects The study of/training in the production of special visual and/or audio effects in the production of moving image sequences.
     W615   Animation techniques The study of/training in the particular techniques associated with the creation of the illusion of movement in a video sequence, by the filming of successive drawings or the positions of puppets.
     W620   Cinematography The study of the purely artistic elements of moving image sequences.
     W630   History of cinematics & photography The study of the development of moving image and still image generation.
     W631   History of cinematics The study of the development of the generating of moving images.
     W632   History of photography The study of the development of the generating of still images.
     W640   Photography The study of/training in all aspects in the creation of still images on photographic film or plates.
     W690   Cinematics & photography not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Cinematics and Photography categories. To be used sparingly.
     W700   Crafts The study of the use of a variety of materials individually and in combination to create pleasing and useful items. Includes a high proportion of practical work.
     W710   Fabric & leather crafts The study of all crafts which are based upon the source materials of fabric and leather.
     W711   Needlecraft The study of crafts which draw upon the use of needles to create and decorate fabric and leather artefacts.
     W712   Dressmaking The study of/training in the creation of items of apparel.
     W713   Soft furnishing The study of/training in the creation of soft furnishing items.
     W714   Weaving The craft of interweaving fibres of material, such as cotton, wool etc.
     W715   Leatherwork The craft involved with the creation or decoration of items made from animal skin.
     W720   Metal crafts The study of all crafts which use metals as a source material.
     W721   Silversmithing/goldsmithing The craft of creating artefacts using the materials of silver and gold.
     W722   Blacksmithing The craft of creating artefacts from iron.
     W723   Clock/watchmaking The craft of creating chronometers.
     W730   Wood crafts The study of all crafts which involve the use of wood as a source material.
     W731   Carpentry/joinery The craft of laying-out, fabricating, erecting, installing and repairing wooden structures and fixtures.
     W732   Cabinet making The craft of creating items of wooden furniture.
     W733   Marquetry & inlaying The craft of decorating wooden items by inlaying patterns of thin layers of wood, brass, ivory etc.
     W734   Veneering The craft of bonding thin outer layers of wood, brass, ivory etc to items for decorative purposes.
     W740   Surface decoration The study of all crafts which involve changing the appearance of objects by adding ornament or colour to their outer layer.
     W750   Clay & stone crafts The study of all crafts which involve the use of clay, stone and related materials.
     W751   Pottery The craft of creating vessels and artefacts from fired clay.
     W752   Tile making The craft of creating decorative and functional tiles from clay and ceramic materials.
     W753   Stone crafts The craft of creating decorative and functional items from stone. May include dry-stone walling.
     W760   Reed crafts The study of all crafts which involve the use of reeds and related materials.
     W761   Basketry The craft of constructing containers from interwoven cane or reeds.
     W762   Thatching The study of the craft of traditional roofing using straw, reeds or similar materials.
     W770   Glass crafts All crafts which involve the use of glass as a source material.
     W771   Glassblowing The craft of constructing glass vessels by means of blowing into molten glass.
     W780   Paper crafts The study of all crafts which involve the making or use of paper as a source material.
     W781   Bookbinding The craft of constructing decorative and ornate bindings for hand-printed books.
     W782   Origami The Japanese craft of folding paper into decorative shapes and figures.
     W790   Crafts not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Crafts categories. To be used sparingly.
     W800   Imaginative writing The study of the creation of fictional text.
     W810   Scriptwriting The study of/training in the writing of scripts for theatre/television or motion picture productions.
     W820   Poetry writing The study of/training in the writing of poems.
     W830   Prose writing The study of/training in the writing of prose.
     W890   Imaginative writing not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Imaginative Writing categories. To be used sparingly.
     W900   Others in creative arts & design Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Creative Arts and Design categories. To be used sparingly.
     W990   Creative arts & design not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Creative Arts and Design categories. To be used sparingly.

X Education

     X100   Training teachers The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to a third party.
     X110   Training teachers - nursery The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to pre-school children.
     X120   Training teachers - primary The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 1 to 6 inclusive.
     X121   Training teachers - infant (key stage 1) The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 1 to 2 inclusive.
     X122   Training teachers - junior (key stage 2) The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 3 to 6 inclusive.
     X130   Training teachers - secondary The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 7 to 11 inclusive.
     X131   Training teachers - key stage 3 The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 7 to 9 inclusive.
     X132   Training teachers - key stage 4 The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 10 to 11 inclusive.
     X140   Training teachers - tertiary The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people above school year 11.
     X141   Training teachers - further education The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people in education years 12 to 13 inclusive.
     X142   Training teachers - higher education The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people registered on a higher education course.
     X150   Training teachers - adult education The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to adults. May include teaching of management training techniques, restructuring of teaching methods to take account of part-time study etc.
     X151   Training teachers - coaching The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to sportsmen and women.
     X160   Training teachers - specialist The training of others to use non-standard methods to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people with particular learning requirements.
     X161   Training teachers - special needs The training of others to use non-standard methods to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people with special needs.
     X162   Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) The training of others to use non-standard methods to teach English to people whose first language is not English.
     X190   Training teachers not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Training Teachers categories. To be used sparingly.
     X200   Research & study skills in education The study of investigative method and the collection of information with the aim of improving individual learning ability and efficiency.
     X210   Research skills The study of investigative method and the collection of information.
     X220   Study skills The study of individual learning ability and techniques with the aim of improving their efficacy and efficiency.
     X290   Research & study skills in education not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Research and Study Skills in education categories. To be used sparingly.
     X300   Academic studies in education The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve group learning ability and efficiency.
     X310   Academic studies in nursery education The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in pre-school children.
     X320   Academic studies in primary education The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in children in school years 1 to 6 inclusive
     X330   Academic studies in secondary education The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in children in school years 7 to 11 inclusive.
     X340   Academic studies in tertiary education The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people above school year 11.
     X341   Academic studies in further education The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people in education years 12 to 13 inclusive.
     X342   Academic studies in higher education The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people in higher education.
     X350   Academic studies in adult education The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in adults.
     X360   Academic studies in specialist education The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people with particular learning requirements.
     X370   Academic studies in education (across phases) The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people of all ages.
     X390   Academic studies in education not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Academic studies in Education categories. To be used sparingly
     X900   Others in education Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Education categories. To be used sparingly.
     X990   Education not elsewhere classified Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Education categories. To be used sparingly.
Contact Institutional Liaison: liaison@hesa.ac.uk, tel 01242 211144