Higher Education Staff Statistics: UK, 2019/20
This bulletin provides details of staff employment at UK higher education (HE) providers on 1 December 2019. Detailed analysis of the HESA staff record will be available in the Higher Education Staff Data, 2019/20 open dataset due to be released on 25 February 2021. Note that data in this release does not reflect any impact on staff numbers due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Further details can be seen in the notes section of this release.
From 2019/20, it is not mandatory for HE providers in England and Northern Ireland to return information about non-academic staff. Further details on coverage changes can be seen in the notes. We advise caution in interpreting this data.
In 2019/20, 197 HE providers reported staff data to HESA. Of these providers, 166 were present in 2018/19 and 31 were new additions this year after being added to the OfS Register in the Approved (fee cap) category. More information on data coverage is given in the notes section.
On 1 December 2019:
- There were 223,525 academic staff (excluding atypical) employed in the HE sector, showing an increase of 3% from 217,065 on 1 December 2018. Of the 6,460 additional academic staff, 1,595 of these were from the 31 providers newly added to the dataset in 2019/20.
- There were 146,780 academic staff (excluding atypical) employed on full-time contracts. This is an increase of 2%, from 143,510 on 1 December 2018.
Higher Education Providers send data to HESA about all their staff who are employed under a contract of employment at any time during the academic year (1 August to 31 July). To prevent over-counting of staff resource HESA only publishes data about staff employed on an active contract on a single reference date of 1 December.
Exceptions to the 1 December census date rule are staff on atypical contracts who are counted regardless of their start and finish dates. Atypical staff figures are always shown separately and should not be added to non-atypical figures.
Most counts of staff numbers are Full-Person Equivalent. This means that a staff member with more than one contract or activity is divided between those activities in the data tables. For example someone who works 3 days a week as a professor and 1 day a week as a gardener will be counted as 0.75 professors and 0.25 gardeners.
The contract marker filter on Figure 1 provides an option to view data on the number of staff on academic atypical contracts. Please note that staff on atypical contracts form a separate population which is not comparable to those on other contract types (see the statement on the use of HESA staff data for more information). This bulletin does not include information on non-academic atypical contracts. Since 2015/16, atypical staff on non-academic contracts have been excluded from the coverage of the Staff record.
In 2019/20, 66,165 staff were employed by HE providers on academic atypical contracts. Atypical contracts meet one or more of the following conditions:
- Are for less than four consecutive weeks - meaning that no statement of terms and conditions needs to be issued.
- Are for one-off/short-term tasks - for example answering phones during clearing, staging an exhibition, organising a conference. There is no mutual obligation between the work provider and working person beyond the given period of work or project. In some cases, individuals will be paid a fixed fee for the piece of work unrelated to hours/time spent.
- Involve work away from the supervision of the normal work provider - but not as part of teaching company schemes or for teaching and research supervision associated with the provision of distance learning education.
- Involve a high degree of flexibility often in a contract to work as-and-when required - for example conference catering, student ambassadors, student demonstrators.
The total full-time equivalent (FTE) value of atypical staff in 2019/20 was 5,190. Further detail on Staff FTE will be published in February 2021 in our Higher Education Staff Data, 2019/20 open dataset.
Source of basic salary
- Among academic staff, 174,265 or 78% had a basic salary that was financed entirely by the HE provider in 2019/20. This was the same percentage in 2018/19.
- The remaining 22% had other sources of basic salary. Other sources can include being partly financed by the HE provider, financed by research councils, UK branches of multinational companies, the NHS and/or UK and overseas charities.
Academic employment function
- In 2019/20, 98,085 or 44% of academic staff were employed on contracts described as having a teaching and research function. The total for 2018/19 was 98,600 or 45%.
- A further 32% of academic staff were on teaching only contracts. This percentage has steadily increased year on year since 2015/16 when it was 26%.
- Among academic staff, 22,810 or 10% were employed on a contract level described as a professor in 2019/20. It should be noted that this is likely to be an undercount of all professors because many will fall into more senior levels, i.e. Heads of Department.
- Of professors, 28% were female in 2019/20. This has increased by one percentage point year on year since 2013/14.
- Academic staff employed on other senior academic contracts comprised 39% females in 2019/20. This has gradually increased from 33% in 2013/14.
Every contract is coded with a contract level. The professor level (F1) is defined as “senior academic appointments which may carry the title of professor but which do not have departmental line management responsibilities.”
Other senior contracts (codes A to E) include leadership and management responsibilities. These contracts may also be held by people who hold the professor title.
See the contract levels definition for more detail.
Terms of employment
- Among academic staff, 74,580, or 33% were employed on fixed-term contracts in 2019/20.
- Of full-time academic staff, 25% were employed on fixed-term contracts in 2019/20. In contrast, 49% of part-time academic staff were employed on fixed-term contracts.
Figure 3 shows data about the number of staff on an hourly paid contract. This can be filtered by various data fields including zero hours contract.
- Among those on an academic contract, 38% of part-time staff were hourly paid compared with 1% of full-time staff.
- Among non-academic staff reported to HESA, 10% of part-time staff were hourly paid compared with less than 1% of full-time staff.
- More staff on fixed-term contracts were hourly paid than were hourly paid on open-ended/permanent contracts. This was true among academic staff as well as among those non-academic staff reported to HESA.
- There were 3,545 academic (excluding atypical) staff on a zero hours contract. Of those, 92% were hourly paid.
A zero hours contract is a contract between an employer and a worker where the employer is not obliged to provide any minimum working hours, and the worker is not obliged to accept any work offered.
- Female staff accounted for 48% of full-time staff reported to HESA and 66% of part-time staff in 2019/20.
- Among academic staff there were more males than females (118,865 and 104,305 respectively). Figures 2 and 3 show that 42% of full-time academic staff were female.
Age of staff
- In 2019/20, 3% or 6,930 academic staff were aged 25 and under. At the opposite end of the age groupings, 42,710 or 19% of academic staff were aged 56 and over.
- Almost half of professors were aged 56 and over.
Ethnicity of staff
- Of academic staff with known ethnicity, 18% were Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) in 2019/20. This has increased by one percentage point year on year since 2016/17.
- Of the 21,055 professors with known ethnicity, 11% or 2,285 were BME. Of the 2,285 BME professors, 1,495 were Asian.
The HESA staff record includes ethnicity information collected from staff by HE providers (see ethnicity definition).
BME stands for ‘Black and minority ethnic’ and is a combination of the Black, Asian, Mixed and Other ethnicity categories.
Nationality of staff
On 1 December 2019, among academic staff with known nationality, 17% or 38,410, had an EU (excluding the UK) nationality, and 14% had a non-EU nationality.
Who produced this Statistical Bulletin?
This bulletin has been produced by HESA in collaboration with statisticians from the Department for Education, the Office for Students, the Welsh Government, the Scottish Government and the Department for the Economy Northern Ireland. It has been released according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.
What is the coverage of data in this release?
There are notable changes to the coverage of Staff data from 2019/20. Prior to 2019/20, the data covers all academic and non-academic staff from all publicly funded HE providers in the UK (and the University of Buckingham). From 2019/20 it became optional for providers in England and Northern Ireland to report data about staff on non-academic contracts (with the exception of any non-academic contracts held by vice-chancellors/heads of institutions or governors).
A further change in England from 2019/20 was the introduction of the Office for Students’ (OfS) Register and the two types of registration categories available to providers in England; Approved (fee cap) and Approved (further information relating to the OfS Register can be found in section III of the pdf document Securing student success: Regulatory framework for higher education in England). Those registered in the Approved (fee cap) category are covered within the 2019/20 data presented, alongside all publicly funded HE providers in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. This represents a slightly higher number of providers falling within coverage this year. In 2019/20, 197 HE providers reported staff data to HESA. This increased from 166 in 2018/19.
Of the 197 HE providers reporting staff data to HESA in 2019/20, 131 opted into returning data about all of their non-academic staff. The remaining 66 opted out and therefore only returned non-academic staff data pertaining to vice-chancellors/heads of institutions or governors. Due to this, we advise caution in interpreting this data.
Has data for earlier years been revised?
This release uses revised data returns (the 'fixed' database) for time series figures. The fixed data return facility provides HE providers with the opportunity to make post-collection amendments to their HESA return. The fixed database remains open for between 6 and 15 months following the closure of the corresponding live data collection and usually becomes available at least 18 months after the original dataset is delivered. Please refer to the definitions below for detail as to which versions have been used to produce this release and the impact of these changes.
Has COVID-19 had any impact on this release?
Data for the 2019/20 HESA Staff record was collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exceptional guidance was issued to HE providers about a small handful of data fields within the collection to clarify HESA's expectations about how these fields should be treated in light of the pandemic. Note that the 2019/20 data in this bulletin relate to details about staff employed on 1 December 2019 (with the exception of academic atypical staff which are included within Figure 1). This precedes the declaration by the World Health Organisation of the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020.
The publication date for this release has not been affected by COVID-19.
How to use the tables and charts
The tables and charts (labelled as figures) within this bulletin are interactive. There are options immediately above the figures to filter by data field(s) such as by sex or mode of employment. The figures refresh to display the option(s) chosen, updating the data accordingly.
In the figures, 0, 1, 2 are rounded to 0. All other numbers are rounded up or down to the nearest multiple of 5 in line with the HESA rounding strategy. Percentages are calculated on unrounded data and are rounded to the nearest whole number. This means percentages may not sum exactly to 100%.
It is a criminal offence under Section 171 of the Data Protection Act 2018 for a person knowingly or recklessly to re-identify information that is de-identified personal data without the consent of the controller responsible for de-identifying the personal data.
How can I get the data in a spreadsheet?
All the data is presented in interactive tables on the HESA website and will not be published in Excel spreadsheets. Below each table you will find a link to download the table as a *.csv.
If you are planning to open the *.csv files in Excel, you must ensure you import the *.csv data, rather than just opening the file directly. This will ensure the data is presented appropriately without corrupt characters appearing. We have published instructions on how to import *.csv files in earlier versions of Excel. If you are using Excel 2016, you should select 'Data' in the top ribbon and then choose 'From Text/csv'. In the options screen, select '65001: Unicode (UTF-8)' in the 'File Origin' box; click 'Edit' and ensure that all columns are formatted as 'Text'.
How to print this bulletin
This bulletin is designed primarily for on screen users. It can be printed by pressing Ctrl + P from within the release.
The data presented in this bulletin is based on the 2019/20 HESA Staff record. The statistics in this bulletin are derived by HESA from data collected from all HE providers in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, and Approved (fee cap) providers in England.
Data was prepared in January 2021 using the following versions of the datasets:
- 2015/16 Fixed dataset, September 2017 version
- 2016/17 Original dataset, November 2017 version
- 2017/18 Fixed dataset, September 2020 version
- 2018/19 Original dataset, November 2019 version
- 2019/20 Original dataset, December 2020 version
- Fixed database
- Full-person equivalent (FPE)
- Rounding strategy
- Academic employment function
- Academic employment marker
- Atypical staff
- Disability status
- Hourly paid marker
- Mode of employment
- Professorial status
- SOC - Occupational coding for higher education staff
- Source of basic salary
- Terms of employment
- Zero hours contract
See data intelligence for specific notes about this year's staff data return.
HESA cannot accept responsibility for any inferences or conclusions derived from the data by third parties.
Press enquiries should be directed to the Press Office at HESA, 95 Promenade, Cheltenham, GL50 1HZ, +44 (0) 1242 388 513 (option 6), [email protected]. General enquiries about the data contained within this bulletin should be addressed to Rebecca Mantle, Head of Official Statistics, HESA (at the same address), +44 (0) 1242 388 513 (option 2), [email protected].
19 January 2021, 9:30
Children, education and skills
HESA, 95 Promenade, Cheltenham, GL50 1HZ
+44 (0) 1242 388 513 (option 6), [email protected]
+44 (0) 1242 388 513 (option 2), [email protected]