Definitions - Destinations of Leavers 2005/06
The HESA Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) target population contains all United Kingdom (UK) and European Union (EU) domiciled students reported to HESA for the reporting period 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2006 as obtaining relevant qualifications and whose study was full-time or part-time (including sandwich students and those writing-up theses). Awards from dormant status are not included in the target population. The coverage differs from the population used in previous years for the First Destination Supplement (FDS) in a number of ways. Notably, those who obtained any of the relevant qualifications following part-time study are now included, together with those obtaining postgraduate diplomas and certificates (full-time or part-time).
Relevant qualifications for inclusion in the DLHE return are postgraduate degrees, postgraduate diplomas and certificates, Postgraduate Certificates in Education (PGCE), first degrees (excludes intercalated degrees), Diplomas of Higher Education (DipHE), Certificates of Higher Education (CertHE), foundation degrees, Higher National Diplomas (HND) or Higher National Certificates (HNC). The population for the DLHE return does not necessarily represent the full cohort graduating during the reporting period; examples of those excluded are professional qualifications (e.g. associate membership or membership of a body such as the Institute of Bankers) and undergraduate diplomas and certificates (other than foundation degrees, HND, DipHE, HNC and CertHE).
The reference dates for this DLHE return were 24 April 2006 (if the leaver obtained the qualification between 1 August 2005 and 31 December 2005) and 15 January 2007 (if the leaver obtained the qualification between 1 January 2006 and 31 July 2006).
Due to the provisions of the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Human Rights Act 1998, HESA implements a strategy in published and released tabulations designed to prevent the disclosure of personal information about any individual. These tabulations are derived from the HESA non-statutory populations1 and may differ slightly from those published by related statutory bodies. This strategy involves rounding all numbers to the nearest multiple of 5. A summary of this strategy is as follows:
- 0, 1, 2 are rounded to 0
- All other numbers are rounded to the nearest multiple of 5.
So for example 3 is represented as 5, 22 is represented as 20, 3,286 is represented as 3,285 while 0, 20, 55, 3,510 remain unchanged.
This rounding strategy is also applied to total figures, the consequence of which is that the sum of numbers in each row or column rarely matches the total shown precisely. Note that subject level data calculated by apportionment will also be rounded in accordance with this strategy.
Average values, proportions and FTE values prepared by HESA are not usually affected by the above strategy, and are calculated on precise raw numbers. However, percentages calculated on populations which contain 52 or fewer individuals will be suppressed and represented as '..' as will averages based on populations of 7 or fewer.
Level of qualification obtained
Postgraduate qualifications are doctorate degrees, masters degrees, higher bachelors degrees, postgraduate diplomas and certificates, and PGCE. In some analyses doctorate degrees and PGCE are tabulated separately, and masters degrees, other higher degrees, postgraduate diplomas and certificates form another group (other postgraduate degrees).
First degrees are first degrees, first degrees with eligibility to register to practice (doctor/dentist/veterinary surgeon), first degrees with qualified teacher status (QTS)/registration with the General Teaching Council (GTC), enhanced first degrees and first degrees obtained concurrently with diplomas.
Other undergraduate qualifications are foundation degrees and all other higher education qualifications not included above which are within the scope of the DLHE return.
Age is as at 31 July 2006.
Domicile data is supplied to HESA in the form of postcodes (UK domiciled students) or country codes. Postcodes are mapped to counties, unitary authorities, government office regions and UK nations using the National Statistics Postcode Directory. Countries are mapped to geographical regions following consultation with the Department for Education and Skills. Where no data is supplied about the student’s domicile, fee eligibility is used to determine whether domicile is European Union, including the UK, or not.
UK domiciled students are those whose normal residence is in the UK, including the Channel Islands and Isle of Man.
Of those students who are not UK domiciled, other EU students are those whose normal residence is in countries which were European Union members as at 1 December of the reporting period. Non-EU students are those whose normal residence prior to commencing their programme of study was outside the EU.
Subject of study and JACS codes
Specification of JACS
All JACS subject codes consist of a letter followed by three digits, the first of them non-zero (except the generic codes described below). The initial letter identifies the subject group, for example F for Physical Sciences. The initial letter and immediately following digit identify the principal subject, for example F5 Astronomy. F500 is a valid JACS code used where there is no need for a higher level of precision, but subjects can be identified more precisely using a second non-zero digit, for example F520 Space and Planetary Sciences, and, with even more precision, F521 Space Science and F522 Planetary Science. Often it is necessary to consider together all the codes, or all the student numbers, falling within a principal subject, and this is done by referring to it using just the first two characters, so F5 refers to all of Astronomy and to total numbers in it, by no means all of which will have code F500. Similarly, F52 refers to the whole of Space and Planetary Sciences. Full details of JACS can be found here.
Student programmes often involve combinations of subjects, and so cannot be described by a single JACS code. Within the HESA student data collection, there are two mechanisms for dealing with this. First, JACS has been slightly extended to allow codes to be assigned to highly integrated programmes which cut across principal subjects. Where such a broadly-based programme falls within a single subject group, it can be coded as the group letter followed by three zeroes, for example F000 would code such a programme in Physical Sciences. This is known as a generic code, and is an extension of JACS for the purpose of coding complete student programmes; generic codes may not be used in any other way, for example for coding modules. Programmes which cut across subject groups are given the generic code Y000, which is equivalent to continuing to recognise the need for a ‘Combined’ subject group.
The second mechanism is designed to describe less integrated programmes of the kind often known as Joint Honours. The HESA record contains three qualification aim fields and a balance field which together make it possible to report the subject coverage of two subject balanced, two subject major/minor, and three subject balanced programmes.
Additionally, a new procedure of apportionment has been introduced. Under apportionment, each headcount is, where necessary, divided in a way that in broad-brush terms reflects the pattern of a split programme. This is analogous to the use of FTE calculations, but should not be confused with them, since the splits used for apportionment are conventional rather than data-based.
For split programmes not involving an initial teacher training (ITT) component, the apportionment algorithm is as follows:
- 50%:50% for a balanced two-way split
- 66.667%:33.333% for a major/minor two-way split
- 33.333%:33.333%:33.333% for a balanced three-way split.
ITT students at undergraduate level who also have a specialism subject recorded (typically, secondary ITT students) are apportioned 50% to the ‘Education’ subject area and the remaining 50% is further apportioned according to the algorithm for non-ITT students. Where no subject other than education is recorded, or where the student is on a PGCE course, apportionment is 100% to the ‘Education’ subject area.
HESA has defined nineteen subject areas in terms of JACS codes for reporting information broken down by subject. The subject areas give a useful broad-brush picture, and are as consistent as is practicable with those previously defined in terms of HESACODE. The subject areas do not overlap, and cover the entire range of JACS Principal Subjects. Apart from the need to separate the ‘Mathematical sciences’ and ‘Computer science’ elements of Principal Subject G9, they are expressed entirely in terms of JACS Principal Subjects, and in many cases correspond closely to one or more JACS Subject Groups.
In response to requests from users of HESA data, the printed tables also show information for four supplementary subjects, three of which fall within single subject areas, and one, ‘Geography & environmental science’, cuts across two areas.
Finally, there is an interest in having information about teachers in training. Since this is best presented on a headcount basis rather than an apportioned basis, the figures are not directly comparable with the apportioned figures in the ‘Education’ subject area, and are tabulated separately to reduce the risk of misinterpretation.
|Subject areas||JACS code|
|Medicine & dentistry||A|
|Subjects allied to medicine||B|
|Agriculture & related subjects||D0/3/4/5/6/7/9|
|Engineering & technology||H, J|
|Architecture, building & planning||K|
|Business & administrative studies||N|
|Mass communications & documentation||P|
|Languages||Q, R, T|
|Historical & philosophical studies||V|
|Creative arts & design||W|
|Geography & environmental science||F8, L7|
|Economics & politics||L1/2|
Apportionment at principal subject level
Although subject areas provide the usual broad-brush framework for presenting information, a more detailed breakdown to the 159 JACS principal subjects is used in some tables. Again, a process of apportionment is necessary, and the procedure is consistent with that used for subject areas, as follows.
- 50%:50% for a balanced two-way split
- 66.667%:33.333% for a major/minor two-way split
- 33.333%:33.333%:33.333% for a balanced three-way split.
ITT students at undergraduate level who also have a specialism subject recorded (typically, secondary ITT students) are apportioned 50% to the ‘X1 Training Teachers’ principal subject and the remaining 50% is further apportioned according to the algorithm for non-ITT students. Where no subject other than education is recorded, or where the student is on a PGCE course, apportionment is 100% to the ‘X1 Training Teachers’ principal subject.
Location of institution
The allocation of an institution to a geographical region is done by reference to the administrative centre of that institution. There may be students registered at institutions who are studying in regions other than that of the administrative centre of the institution.
The Open University is counted as a wholly English institution. The administrative centre is located in England, although The Open University teaches throughout the UK.
Classification of first degrees
The classification of an undergraduate degree indicates the qualification class that the student obtained. Certain qualifications obtained at first degree level are not subject to classification of award, notably medical and general degrees. These, together with ordinary degrees, have been included within the unclassified category. Third class honours, fourth class honours and the pass category have been aggregated. Lower second and undivided second class honours have been aggregated.
Mode of study
Full-time includes full-time and sandwich study, plus those writing-up theses following full-time study.
Part-time includes part-time study, full-time study on courses lasting less than 24 weeks, block release or studying during the evenings, plus those writing-up theses following part-time study.
The Standard Occupational Classification
In 2003 HESA adopted the new SOC2000 Standard Occupational Classification (which replaced SOC90), for comparability of sector data with other areas of the economy. A variant of the SOC2000 was created for the coding of occupational information collected in the DLHE survey. The classification is termed SOC (DLHE) and details are available on the HESA website.
The Standard Industrial Classification
The Standard Industrial Classification of economic activities (SIC) provides a framework for the collection, tabulation, presentation and analysis of data about economic activities. The present version (SIC(92)) is aligned with similar classifications in all member states of the European Union and is obligatory in all cases where the UK is required to transmit to the European Commission statistics broken down by economic activity.
Standard industry codes for economic activity are used to describe the relationship between the inputs and outputs of such activity. In cases where multiple activities take place, classification usually relates to the single most important activity. In the case of DLHE statistics, this will usually be the most important activity undertaken by an employer (or self-employed person). Economic activities are measured by enquiring into the nature of an employer’s (or self-employed person’s) business.
In the DLHE survey leavers are able to report separately what they are doing in relation to both employment and study and a matrix of possible outcomes is constructed. This matrix is used to define the key categories of outcomes such as employed and unemployed.
As leavers report separately what they are doing in relation to employment and further study, it is possible to be involved in either employment only, further study only or employment and further study. Therefore where the terms employment and further study are used, it is important to note that:
- Employment includes those in employment only, and those in both employment and further study
- Further study includes those in further study only, and those in both employment and further study.
Matrix of standard categories for publication from DLHE
|Employment circumstances||Full-time study (1)||Part-time study (2)||Not in study (3)|
|Employed full-time in paid work (01)||D||D||A|
|Employed part-time in paid work (02)||D||D||B|
|Voluntary work/other unpaid work (15)||D||D||C|
|Permanently unable to work/retired (16)||G||G||G|
|Temporarily sick or unable to work/looking after the home or family (17)||E||E||G|
|Taking time out in order to travel (10)||G||G||G|
|Due to start a job within the next month (11)||E||F||F|
|Unemployed and looking for employment, further study or training (12)||E||F||F|
|Not employed but NOT looking for employment, further study or training (13)||E||E||O|
|Something else (14)||E||E||O|
|Question not answered (XX)||X||X||X|
The values in brackets refer to valid values recorded for Employment Circumstances (field 5) and Study Circumstances (field 6) in the DLHE record.
|Full-time paid work||A|
|Part-time paid work||B|
|Voluntary/unpaid work only||C|
|Work & further study||D|
|Further study only||E|
|Assumed to be unemployed||F|
|Not available for employment||G|
Employment only includes those graduates who reported that they were in full-time paid work (including self-employed/freelance), part-time paid work, voluntary or unpaid work, and who were not also in study, training or research.
Full-time employment only includes those who reported that they were in full-time paid work (including self-employed/freelance) and who were not also in study, training or research.
Combination of work and further study includes those who reported that they were in full-time paid work (including self-employed/freelance), part-time paid work, voluntary or unpaid work, and who were also in full-time or part-time study, training or research.
Assumed to be unemployed includes those students who gave their employment circumstances as unemployed and looking for employment, further study or training, and who were also either in part-time study, training or research or not studying, plus those who were due to start a job within the next month and who were also either in part-time study, training or research or not studying.
Further study only includes those who gave their employment circumstances as temporarily sick or unable to work/looking after the home or family, not employed but not looking for employment, further study or training, or something else and who were also either in full-time or part-time study, training or research, plus those who were due to start a job within the next month or unemployed and looking for employment, further study or training and who were also in full-time study, training or research.
Location of employment
This field describes the location of the HE leaver's place of work. Data is supplied to HESA in the form of postcodes for employment in the UK or country codes. Postcodes are mapped to unitary authorities, government office regions and UK countries using the National Statistics Postcode Directory. Countries are mapped to geographical regions following consultation with the Department for Education and Skills.
Duration of employment
This field describes the HE leaver's own assessment of the duration of their employment in the work they were doing when surveyed.
This field identifies the actual and intended destinations of HE leavers who completed courses of initial teacher training. Specific information is requested from HE leavers that completed either a course leading to Qualified Teacher Status or a course of pre-service teacher training as defined by the Scottish Executive.
This describes, for those in a teaching post, the type of school or college the HE leaver is teaching in.
This describes, for those in a teaching post, the type of establishment in which the HE leaver is teaching (i.e. primary, secondary, college or other educational establishment).
1 Non-statutory populations omit any contribution from individuals who have notified HESA of their wish to be excluded in circumstances such as the publication of the present volume where inclusion is not defined as a requirement by the bodies whose statutory powers underpin HESA data collections.