Definitions - Destinations of Leavers 2007/08
The HESA Student record is collected in respect of all students registered in the reporting institution who follow programmes of study leading to the award of a qualification or institutional credit. The Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) record supplements the Student record in so far as it is linked to it and collects information about what those completing their HE experience, and respond to the DLHE questionnaire, go on to do.
The reference dates for this DLHE return were 14 April 2008 (if the leaver obtained the qualification between 1 August 2007 and 31 December 2007) and 12 January 2009 (if the leaver obtained the qualification between 1 January 2008 and 31 July 2008).
The HESA Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) target population contains all United Kingdom (UK) and European Union (EU) domiciled students reported to HESA for the reporting period 1 August 2007 to 31 July 2008 as obtaining relevant qualifications and whose study was full-time or part-time (including sandwich students and those writing-up theses). Awards from dormant status are not included in the target population. Relevant qualifications exclude professional qualifications. Officially, the Crown Dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man are not part of the UK or the EU. However, they are grouped with and assumed to be part of the UK in the HESA DLHE record.
The data specifications of the Student and DLHE records use the term 'instance' to describe a student's engagement with the institution, which, because a student can have more than one instance of engagement, will exceed the number of students. Unless stated otherwise, DLHE data is based on an instance of engagement.
Relevant qualifications for inclusion in the DLHE record are taken from the qualification awarded to the student instance during the reporting year, usually at the end of an instance. The qualification awarded may be different to the student's qualification aim, and each student instance may have a maximum of two qualifications awarded. Where two relevant qualifications are awarded, the highest award is selected as the relevant qualification for DLHE.
HESA classifies courses according to a framework which aligns with the framework for HE qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (FHEQ), the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) (of which the framework for qualifications of HE institutions in Scotland is a constituent part) and the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) and Bologna frameworks. Details are available here. It includes level M for taught masters degrees, and level H for honours degrees.
Relevant qualifications include: doctorate and masters degrees; other postgraduate qualifications obtained primarily through supervised research as level L; qualifications leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body (at level M, H, I and J); integrated undergraduate/postgraduate taught masters degrees on the enhanced/extended pattern; postgraduate bachelors degrees (at level M and level H); Postgraduate Certificate in /Professional Graduate Diploma in Education and Professional Graduate Certificate in Education; other taught qualifications at level M; qualifications leading towards registration with the Architects Registration Board (Parts 2 and 1) (at level M and level H); first degrees with honours/ordinary first degrees (including those leading to qualified teacher status (QTS)/registration with the General Teaching Council (GTC), but excluding those from the intercalated pattern); first degrees with honours on the enhanced/extended pattern at level H; first degrees with honours and diploma; graduate diploma/certificate at level H and level I; other qualifications at level H; foundation degrees (including those which on completion meet entry requirement for pre-registration health or social care qualification); Diplomas of Higher Education (DipHE); Higher National Diplomas (HND); Certificates of Education (CertHE); Higher National Certificates (HNC).
The population for the DLHE return does not necessarily represent the full cohort graduating during the reporting period; examples of those excluded are professional qualifications (e.g. associate membership or membership of a body such as the Institute of Bankers) and undergraduate diplomas and certificates other than foundation degrees, Diplomas of Higher education (DipHE), Higher National Diplomas (HND), Certificates of Higher Education (CertHE) and Higher National Certificates (HNC).
Due to the provisions of the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Human Rights Act 1998, HESA implements a strategy in published and released tabulations designed to prevent the disclosure of personal information about any individual. These tabulations are derived from the HESA non-statutory populations1 and may differ slightly from those published by related statutory bodies. This strategy involves rounding all numbers to the nearest multiple of 5. A summary of this strategy is as follows:
- 0, 1, 2 are rounded to 0
- All other numbers are rounded to the nearest multiple of 5.
So for example 3 is represented as 5, 22 is represented as 20, 3286 is represented as 3285 while 0, 20, 55, 3510 remain unchanged.
This rounding strategy is also applied to total figures, the consequence of which is that the sum of numbers in each row or column rarely matches the total shown precisely. Note that subject level data calculated by apportionment will also be rounded in accordance with this strategy.
Average values, proportions and FTE values prepared by HESA are not usually affected by the above strategy, and are calculated on precise raw numbers. However, percentages calculated on populations which contain 52 or fewer individuals will be suppressed and represented as '..' as will averages based on populations of 7 or fewer.
Level of qualification obtained
Postgraduate qualifications obtained includes doctorate degrees; masters degrees; other postgraduate qualifications obtained primarily through advanced supervised research; Masters of Business Administration (MBA); pre-registration masters degrees and other taught qualifications at level M leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body; postgraduate bachelors degrees at level M; Postgraduate Certificates in Education or Professional Graduate Diplomas in Education; other taught qualifications at level M including those leading towards registration with the Architects Registration Board (Part 2 qualification).
In certain analyses Postgraduate Certificates in Education are shown separately.
In analyses where postgraduate qualification obtained is disaggregated into Doctorate degree, Other postgraduate degree the following groupings are used:
Doctorate degree qualifications obtained includes both doctorate degrees studied primarily through advanced supervised research and those not studied primarily through advanced supervised research.
Other postgraduate degree qualifications obtained includes masters degrees; other postgraduate qualifications obtained primarily through advanced supervised research; Masters of Business Administration (MBA); pre-registration masters degrees and other taught qualifications at level M leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body; postgraduate bachelors at level M; Postgraduate Certificates in Education or Professional Graduate Diplomas in Education; other taught qualifications at level M including those leading towards registration with the Architects Registration Board (Part 2 qualification).
First degree qualifications obtained includes integrated undergraduate/postgraduate taught masters degrees on the enhanced/extended pattern, and first degrees with honours on the enhanced/extended pattern at level H; first degrees with honours/ordinary first degrees (including those leading to qualified teacher status (QTS)/registration with the General Teaching Council (GTC), but excluding those from the intercalated pattern); first degrees with honours leading towards registration with the Architects Registration Board (Part 1 qualification); pre-registration first degrees with honours/ordinary first degrees leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body; first degrees with honours and diploma; postgraduate bachelors degrees at level H.
Other undergraduate qualifications obtained includes graduate diplomas/certificates at level H; Professional Graduate Certificates in Education; other qualifications at level H including those leading towards registration with the Architects Registration Board (Part 2 qualification); graduate diplomas/certificates at level I; foundation degrees (including those which on completion meet the entry requirement for pre-registration health or social care qualification); Diplomas of Higher Education (DipHE) (including those leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body); Higher National Diplomas (HND); Certificates of Higher Education (CertHE); Higher National Certificates (HNC).
In certain analyses Professional Graduate Certificates in Education are shown separately.
Mode of study
The qualification obtained mode of study used in HESA DLHE analyses re-allocates writing-up and dormant status student instance awards to their previous mode.
Full-time study instances are those where students are recorded as studying full-time (normally required to attend an institution for periods amounting to at least 24 weeks within the year of study), on thick or thin sandwich courses or on a study-related year out. During that time students are normally expected to undertake periods of study, tuition or work experience which amount to an average of at least 21 hours per week. This includes writing-up and dormant status where the mode of study was previously full-time and students changing to dormant status previously full-time.
Part-time study instances are those where students are recorded as studying part-time, or studying full-time on courses lasting less than 24 weeks, on block release or studying during the evenings only. This includes writing-up and dormant status where the mode of study was previously part-time, awards given to those on sabbatical and students changing to dormant status previously part-time.
Classification of first degrees
Certain qualifications obtained at first degree level are not subject to classification of award, notably medical and general degrees. These, together with ordinary degrees and aegrotat qualifications, have been included in Unclassified. Third class honours, fourth class honours and pass have been aggregated as Third class/Pass. Lower second and undivided second class honours have been aggregated as Lower second.
Age is as at 31 July 2008.
Domicile data is supplied to HESA in the form of postcodes (UK domiciled students) or country codes. Postcodes are mapped to counties, unitary authorities, government office regions and UK nations using the National Statistics Postcode Directory. Where no data is supplied about the student's domicile, fee eligibility is used to assign to either UK region unknown or Non-European Union unknown.
UK domicile students are those whose normal residence is in the UK, and for the purpose of DLHE includes Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man. (Officially, the Crown Dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man are not part of the UK or the EU.)
(Other) European Union (EU) domicile students are those whose normal residence is in countries which were European Union (EU) members as at 1 December of the reporting period. Where EU countries are shown separately, from 2007/08, individual country figures exclude those domiciled in the country's overseas territories (e.g. Netherlands Antilles, French Guiana).
Subject of study and JACS codes
Specification of JACS
All JACS subject codes consist of a letter followed by three digits, the first of them non-zero (except the generic codes described below). The initial letter identifies the subject group, for example F for Physical Sciences. The initial letter and immediately following digit identify the principal subject, for example F5 Astronomy. F500 is a valid JACS code used where there is no need for a higher level of precision, but subjects can be identified more precisely using a second non-zero digit, for example F520 Space and planetary sciences, and, with even more precision, F521 Space science and F522 Planetary science. Often it is necessary to consider together all the codes, or all the student numbers, falling within a principal subject, and this is done by referring to it using just the first two characters, so F5 refers to all of Astronomy and to total numbers in it, by no means all of which will have code F500. Similarly, F52 refers to the whole of Space and planetary sciences.
The first review of a selection of subject areas resulted in the implementation of a revision of the JACS subject codes for 2007/08. The full listing of JACS2 can be found on our site.
Student courses often involve combinations of subjects, and so cannot be described by a single JACS code. Within the HESA student data collection, there are two mechanisms for dealing with this. First, JACS has been slightly extended to allow codes to be assigned to highly integrated courses which cut across principal subjects. Where such a broadly-based course falls within a single subject group, it can be coded as the group letter followed by three zeroes, for example F000 would code such a course in Physical sciences. This is known as a generic code, and is an extension of JACS for the purpose of coding complete student courses; generic codes may not be used in any other way, for example for coding modules. Courses which cut across subject groups are given the generic code Y000, which is equivalent to continuing to recognise the need for a Combined subject group. The second mechanism is designed to describe less integrated courses of the kind often known as Joint Honours. The HESA Student record allows the reporting of up to three subject descriptors for each course and a proportion of time allocated for each subject studied on a course.
Additionally, a procedure of apportionment is used. Under apportionment, each student instance is, where necessary, divided in a way that in broad-brush terms reflects the pattern of a split course. This is analogous to the use of FTE calculations (with a variation for initial teacher training (ITT) students).
From 2007/08, for split courses not involving an ITT component, institutions assign their own percentages based on a broad assessment of the relative contribution of subjects to a course, rather than detailed analysis of the contributions of subjects to individual students' courses of study. It is therefore expected that most institutions will apply the same percentages to all courses and only vary this where there is a substantially different subject split. For institutions in England, Northern Ireland and Wales the listed standard percentages are recommended, and in Scotland obligatory:
- Balanced 50% for each of the two subjects
- Major - Minor 67% and 33%
- Triple 34%, 33% and 33%.
The sum of the proportion allocated to each subject studied on a course must equal 100.
ITT students at undergraduate level who also have a specialism subject recorded (typically, secondary ITT students) are apportioned 50% to the Education subject area and the remaining 50% is further assigned according to the percentages recommended above. Where no subject other than education is recorded, or where the student is on a Postgraduate Certificate in Education or Professional Graduate Certificate in Education course, apportionment is 100% to the Education subject area.
HESA has defined nineteen subject areas in terms of JACS codes for reporting information broken down by subject to present a useful broad-brush picture. The subject areas do not overlap, and cover the entire range of JACS Principal Subjects. Apart from the need to separate the Mathematical science and Computer science elements of Principal Subject G0 and G9, they are expressed entirely in terms of JACS Principal Subjects, and correspond closely to JACS Subject Groups.
In response to requests from users of HESA data, the printed tables also show information for four supplementary subjects, three of which fall within single subject areas, and one, Geography, cuts across the two areas of Physical sciences and Social studies.
Since Initial teacher training data is presented on a count of instance basis rather than an apportioned basis, the figures are not directly comparable with the apportioned figures in the Education subject area, and are tabulated separately to reduce the risk of misinterpretation.
|Subject areas||JACS code|
|Medicine & dentistry||A|
|Subjects allied to medicine||B|
|Agriculture & related subjects||D0/3/4/5/6/7/9|
|Engineering & technology||H, J|
|Architecture, building & planning||K|
|Business & administrative studies||N|
|Mass communications & documentation||P|
|Languages||Q, R, T|
|Historical & philosophical studies||V|
|Creative arts & design||W|
|Economics & politics||L1/2|
Apportionment at principal subject level
Although subject areas provide a broad-brush framework for presenting information, a more detailed breakdown to the 162 JACS principal subjects is used in some tables. Again, a process of apportionment is necessary, and the procedure is consistent with that used for subject areas, as follows.
For split programmes not involving an initial teacher training (ITT) component, the apportionment algorithm is as reported by the institution.
ITT students at undergraduate level who also have a specialism subject recorded (typically, secondary ITT students) are apportioned 50% to the X1 Training teachers principal subject and the remaining 50% is further apportioned according to the algorithm for non-ITT students. Where no subject other than education is recorded, or where the student is on a Postgraduate Certificate in Education or Professional Graduate Certificate in Education course, apportionment is 100% to the X1 Training teachers principal subject.
Location of institution
The allocation of an institution to a geographical region is done by reference to the administrative centre of that institution. There may be students registered at institutions who are studying in regions other than that of the administrative centre of the institution.
The Open University teaches throughout the UK. Its administrative centre is located in South East England and, except where shown separately, is counted as a wholly English institution.
The Standard Occupational Classification
In 2003 HESA adopted the SOC2000 Standard Occupational Classification (which replaced SOC90), for comparability of sector data with other areas of the economy. A variant of the SOC2000 was created for the coding of occupational information collected in the DLHE survey. The classification is termed SOC (DLHE) and details are available from the Downloadable files section of the DLHE coding manual on the HESA website (Standard Occupational Classification (SOC DLHE) (Updated December 2003) (zip)).
The Standard Industrial Classification
The Standard Industrial Classification of economic activities (SIC) provides a framework for the collection, tabulation, presentation and analysis of data about economic activities. From 2007/08 the aggregations reflect the Standard Industrial Classification economic activity sections as summarised in the UK Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities 2007 (SIC 2007). Full details are available from www.statistics.gov.uk/methods_quality/sic/downloads/SIC2007explanatorynotes.pdf.
Standard industry codes for economic activity are used to describe the relationship between the inputs and outputs of such activity. In cases where multiple activities take place, classification usually relates to the single most important activity. In the case of DLHE statistics, this will usually be the most important activity undertaken by an employer (or self-employed person). Economic activities are measured by enquiring into the nature of an employer's (or self-employed person's) business.
Employment circumstances and Study circumstances
In the DLHE survey leavers are able to report separately what they are doing in relation to both employment and study and a matrix of possible outcomes is constructed. This matrix is used to define the key categories of outcomes such as employed and unemployed.
As leavers report separately what they are doing in relation to employment and further study, it is possible to be involved in either employment only, further study only or employment and further study. Therefore where the terms employment and further study are used, it is important to note that:
- employment includes those in employment only, and those in both employment and further study
- further study includes those in further study only, and those in both employment and further study.
Matrix of Employment circumstances and Study circumstances:
|Employment circumstances||Full-time study (1)||Part-time study (2)||Not in study (3)|
|Employed full-time in paid work (01)||D||D||A|
|Employed part-time in paid work (02)||D||D||B|
|Voluntary work/other unpaid work (15)||D||D||C|
|Permanently unable to work/retired (16)||G||G||G|
|Temporarily sick or unable to work/looking after the home or family (17)||E||E||G|
|Taking time out in order to travel (10)||G||G||G|
|Due to start a job within the next month (11)||E||F||F|
|Unemployed and looking for employment, further study or training (12)||E||F||F|
|Not employed but NOT looking for employment, further study or training (13)||E||E||O|
|Something else (14)||E||E||O|
|Question not answered (XX)||X||X||X|
The values in brackets refer to the valid entries recorded for Employment circumstances (field 5) and Study circumstances (field 6) in the DLHE record.
Study circumstances describes whether the leaver was involved in study, training or research on the census date, and if so, if it was full-time or part-time. Not in study/Not studying includes not in study, training or registered as a research student.
Activity describes the employment category of the leaver based on the values in the Matrix of Employment circumstances and Study circumstances:
|Full-time paid work only (including self-employed)||A|
|Part-time paid work only||B|
|Voluntary/unpaid work only||C|
|Work and further study||D|
|Further study only||E|
|Assumed to be unemployed||F|
|Not available for employment||G|
Work only includes those who reported that they were in full-time paid work only (including self-employed), part-time paid work only plus voluntary/unpaid work only.
Work (including work and further study) includes those who reported that they were in full-time paid work only (including self-employed), part-time paid work only, voluntary/unpaid work only plus work and further study.
Employment overseas includes full-time paid work only (including self-employed), part-time paid work only, voluntary/unpaid work only plus work and further study.
Assumed to be unemployed includes those students who gave their employment circumstances as unemployed and looking for employment, further study or training, and who were also either in part-time study, training or research or not studying, plus those who were due to start a job within the next month and who were also either in part-time study, training or research or not studying.
Further study only includes those who gave their employment circumstances as temporarily sick or unable to work/looking after the home or family, not employed but not looking for employment, further study or training, or something else, and who were also either in full-time or part-time study, training or research. It also includes those who were due to start a job within the next month or unemployed and looking for employment, further study or training, and who were also in full-time study, training or research.
In certain analyses the following grouping of employment category is used:
Study (including work and further study) includes those who reported that they were in work and further study plus further study only.
Location of employment
This describes the location of the HE leaver's place of work. Data is supplied to HESA in the form of postcodes for employment in the UK or country codes. Postcodes are mapped to counties/unitary authorities, Government Office Regions and UK countries using the National Statistics Postcode Directory.
Duration of employment
This describes the HE leaver's own assessment of the duration of their employment in the work they were doing when surveyed.
Describes the median annual salary to the nearest thousand pounds before tax, for leavers in full-time paid work, excluding those with zero salary. Salary information may be refused.
This describes, for a leaver who studied part-time, the level of support an employer provided during the programme of study (i.e. tuition fees paid, grant to cover tuition fees and living expenses, study leave, supported in other ways, no employer support).
This identifies the actual and intended destinations of HE leavers who completed courses of initial teacher training. Specific information is requested from HE leavers that completed either a course leading to Qualified Teacher Status or a course of pre-service teacher training as defined by the Scottish Executive (Scottish Government) (i.e. in a teaching post, seeking a teaching post, not teaching or seeking a teaching post).
This describes, for those in a teaching post, the type of school or college the HE leaver is teaching in (i.e. maintained (state), non-maintained (independent), both maintained (state) and non-maintained (independent), not known if maintained (state) or non-maintained (independent) school or college).
This describes, for those in a teaching post, the type of establishment in which the HE leaver is teaching (i.e. primary, secondary, both primary and secondary, college or other educational establishment).
1 Non-statutory populations omit any contribution from individuals who have notified HESA of their wish to be excluded in circumstances such as the publication of the present volume where inclusion is not defined as a requirement by the bodies whose statutory powers underpin HESA data collections.
2 From 2007/08 the previous supplementary subjects category Geography & environmental science changed to Geography. This was a result of the JACS2 review, reclassifying F800 Physical and terrestrial geographical and environmental sciences to F800 Physical geographical sciences and creating the new code F750 Environmental sciences under the F700 Science of aquatic and terrestrial environments principal subject area.