Definitions - Higher Education Statistics 2011/12

National Statistics

Information about HESA's compliance with the Code of Practice for Official (and National) Statistics, together with copies of statistical policies and reports providing more detail on quality and reliability of HESA statistics can be found here.

A. Rounding strategy

Due to the provisions of the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Human Rights Act 1998, HESA implements a strategy in published and released tabulations designed to prevent the disclosure of personal information about any individual. This strategy involves rounding all numbers to the nearest multiple of 5. A summary of this strategy is as follows:

• 0, 1, 2 are rounded to 0
• All other numbers are rounded to the nearest multiple of 5.

So for example 3 is represented as 5, 22 is represented as 20, 3286 is represented as 3285 while 0, 20, 55, 3510 remain unchanged.

This rounding strategy is also applied to total figures, the consequence of which is that the sum of numbers in each row or column rarely matches the total shown precisely. Note that subject level data calculated by apportionment will also be rounded in accordance with this strategy.

Average values, proportions and FTE values prepared by HESA are not usually affected by the above strategy, and are calculated on precise raw numbers. However, percentages calculated on populations which contain 52 or fewer individuals will be suppressed and represented as '..' as will averages based on populations of 7 or fewer.

B. Subject of study and JACS codes

Specification of JACS

All JACS subject codes consist of a letter followed by three digits, the first of them non-zero (except the generic codes described below). The initial letter identifies the subject group, for example F for physical sciences. The initial letter and immediately following digit identify the principal subject, for example F5 astronomy. F500 is a valid JACS code used where there is no need for a higher level of precision, but subjects can be identified more precisely using a second non-zero digit, for example F520 space & planetary sciences, and with even more precision, F521 space science and F522 planetary science. Often it is necessary to consider together all the codes, or all the student numbers, falling within a principal subject, and this is done by referring to it using just the first two characters, so F5 refers to all of astronomy and to total numbers in it, by no means all of which will have code F500. Similarly, F52 refers to the whole of Space & planetary sciences.

The full listing of JACS2 subject codes can be found here.

Course codes

Student courses often involve combinations of subjects, and so cannot be described by a single JACS code. Within the HESA student data collection, there are two mechanisms for dealing with this. First, JACS has been slightly extended to allow codes to be assigned to highly integrated courses which cut across principal subjects. Where such a broadly-based course falls within a single subject group, it can be coded as the group letter followed by three zeroes, for example F000 would code such a course in physical sciences. This is known as a generic code, and is an extension of JACS for the purpose of coding complete student courses; generic codes may not be used in any other way, for example for coding modules. Courses which cut across subject groups are given the generic code Y000, which is equivalent to continuing to recognise the need for a combined subject group. The second mechanism is designed to describe less integrated courses of the kind often known as Joint honours. The HESA Student record allows the reporting of up to three subject descriptors for each course and a proportion of time allocated for each subject studied on a course

Apportionment

Additionally, a procedure of apportionment is used. Under apportionment, each student instance is, where necessary, divided in a way that in broad-brush terms reflects the pattern of a split course. This is analogous to the use of FTE calculations (with a variation for initial teacher training (ITT) students).

For split courses not involving an ITT component, institutions assign their own percentages based on a broad assessment of the relative contribution of subjects to a course, rather than detailed analysis of the contributions of subjects to individual students' courses of study. It is therefore expected that most institutions will apply the same percentages to all courses and only vary this where there is a substantially different subject split. For institutions in England, Northern Ireland and Wales the listed standard percentages are recommended, and in Scotland obligatory:

• Balanced 50% for each of the two subjects
• Major - Minor 67% and 33%
• Triple 34%, 33% and 33%.

The sum of the proportion allocated to each subject studied on a course must equal 100.

ITT students at undergraduate level who also have specialism subjects recorded (typically, secondary ITT students) are apportioned 50% to the education subject area and the remaining 50% is further assigned according to the percentages recommended above. Where no subject other than education is recorded, or where the student is on a PGCE course, apportionment is 100% to the education subject area.

Subject areas

HESA has defined 19 subject areas in terms of JACS codes for reporting information broken down by subject to present a useful broad-brush picture. The subject areas do not overlap, and cover the entire range of JACS Principal subjects. Apart from the need to separate the mathematical science and computer science elements of principal subject G0 and G9, they are expressed entirely in terms of JACS principal subjects, and correspond closely to JACS subject groups.

Since Initial teacher training data is presented on a count of instance basis rather than an apportioned basis, the figures are not directly comparable with the apportioned figures in the education subject area, and are tabulated separately to reduce the risk of misinterpretation.

Subject areas JACS code
Medicine & dentistry A
Subjects allied to medicine B
Biological sciences C
Veterinary science D1/2
Agriculture & related subjects D0/3/4/5/6/7/9
Physical sciences F
Mathematical sciences G00/01/1/2/3/90/91
Computer science G02/4/5/6/7/92
Engineering & technology H, J
Architecture, building & planning K
Social studies L
Law M
Mass communications & documentation P
Languages Q, R, T
Historical & philosophical studies V
Creative arts & design W
Education X
Combined Y

Science subject areas

Total - Science subject areas has been added to certain analyses. This is the sum of the following subject areas: medicine & dentistry; subjects allied to medicine; biological sciences; veterinary science; agriculture & related subjects; physical sciences; mathematical sciences; computer science; engineering & technology plus architecture, building & planning (i.e. sum of JACS codes A to K inclusive).

C. HESA student data

Coverage

In general, the HESA Student record is collected in respect of all students registered at a reporting higher education institution (HEI) who follow courses that lead to the award of a qualification(s) or institutional credit, excluding those registered as studying wholly overseas. The data specification of the record uses the term 'instance' to describe a student's engagement with the institution, which, because a student can have more than one instance of engagement, will exceed the number of students. Unless stated otherwise, student data is based on an instance of engagement. Postdoctoral students are not included in the HESA Student record.

The reporting period for the 2011/12 HESA Student record is 1 August 2011 to 31 July 2012.

Higher education (HE) students for the purpose of HESA's data collection are those students on courses for which the level of instruction is above that of level 3 of the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) National Qualifications Framework (NQF) (e.g. courses at the level of Certificate of HE and above).

Further education (FE) students are those students on programmes of study for which the level of instruction is equal to or below that of level 3 of the NQF.

The HESA session population has been derived from the HESA Student record. It includes all higher education and further education student instances active at a reporting institution at any point in the reporting period 1 August to 31 July except:

1. Dormant student instances (those who have ceased studying but have not formally de-registered)
2. Incoming visiting and exchange student instances
3. Postdoctoral student instances, and students primarily studying outside the UK
4. Instances where the whole of the programme of study is outside of the UK
5. Instances where the student has spent, or will spend, more than 8 weeks in the UK but the study programme is primarily outside the UK
6. Teaching Agency (TA) Subject Knowledge Enhancement (SKE) student instances, and
7. Students on sabbatical.

Incoming visiting and exchange students are excluded from the session population in order to avoid an element of double-counting with both outgoing and incoming students being included.

The HESA session population forms the basis for counts of full-time equivalent (FTE) student instances.

The HESA standard registration population has been derived from the HESA Student record, from all higher education and further education student instances active at a reporting institution in the reporting period 1 August to 31 July, following courses that lead to the award of a qualification or institutional credit, and ensures that similar activity is counted in a similar way irrespective of when it occurs.

The population splits the student experience into 'years of study'. The first year is deemed to start on the commencement date of the student instance, with second and subsequent years starting on, or near, the anniversary of that date. Student instances are counted once for each 'year of study'. However students who leave within two weeks of their instance start date, or anniversary of their start date, and are on a course of more than two weeks duration, are not included in the standard registration population.

Also excluded from this population are:

1. Dormant students (those who have ceased studying but have not formally de-registered)
2. Incoming visiting and exchange students
3. postdoctoral student instances, and students primarily studying outside the UK
4. Instances where the whole of the programme of study is outside of the UK
5. Teaching Agency (TA) Subject Knowledge Enhancement (SKE) student instances,
6. Students on sabbatical, and
7. Writing-up students.

The HESA standard registration population forms the basis for most counts of first year and continuing student instances.

The HESA qualifications obtained population is a count of student instances associated with the award of an HE qualification (excluding HE institutional credits) during the HESA reporting period 1 August to 31 July, which were returned to HESA by 31 October 2012. This includes qualifications awarded from dormant, writing-up and sabbatical status.

Incoming visiting and exchange students are excluded from this population.

Full-time equivalent

Full-time equivalent (FTE) data represents the institution's assessment of the full-time equivalence of the student instance during the reporting period 1 August to 31 July.

FTE data is based on the HESA session population, and includes writing-up students.

Mode of study

(Applicable to HESA populations except the qualifications obtained population)

Full-time and sandwich includes students recorded as studying full-time, normally required to attend an institution for periods amounting to at least 24 weeks within the year of study, plus those enrolled on a sandwich course (thick or thin), irrespective of whether or not they are in attendance at the institution or engaged in industrial training, and those on a study-related year out of their institution. During that time students are normally expected to undertake periods of study, tuition or work experience which amount to an average of at least 21 hours per week for a minimum of 24 weeks study/placement.

In analysis where full-time and sandwich modes of studies are shown separately, they are defined as follows:

Full-time includes students recorded as studying full-time, normally required to attend an institution for periods amounting to at least 24 weeks within the year of study.

Sandwich includes students enrolled on a sandwich course (thick or thin), irrespective of whether they are in attendance at the institution or engaged in industrial training. During that time students are normally expected to undertake periods of study, tuition or work experience which amount to an average of at least 21 hours per week for a minimum of 24 weeks study/placement.

Part-time includes students recorded as studying part-time, or studying full-time on courses lasting less than 24 weeks, on block release, or studying during the evenings only.

Level of study

The level of study is taken from the course aim of the student.

HESA classifies courses according to a framework which aligns with the framework for HE qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (FHEQ), the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) (of which the framework for qualifications of HE institutions in Scotland is a constituent part) and the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) and Bologna frameworks. Details are available here. It includes level M for taught masters degrees, and level H for honours degrees.

Higher education (HE) courses are those programmes of study for which the level of instruction is above that of level 3 of the National Qualifications Framework, e.g. courses leading to GCE A levels, VCE A levels or SQA Advanced Highers/Highers.

Further education (FE) courses are those programmes of study for which the level of instruction is equal to or below that of courses leading to HE level as described above, and includes Diplomas, Certificates and National Vocational Qualification (NVQ)/Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) at level 3 and below, A/AS levels, Advanced Highers/Highers (Scotland), GCSEs, Intermediates (Scotland), HE Access courses, Welsh for Adults and other qualifications below higher education level.

Postgraduate courses are those leading to higher degrees, diplomas and certificates (including Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE at level M) (unless shown separately) and professional qualifications) which usually require a first degree as an entry qualification (i.e. already qualified at level H).

First degree includes first degrees (including eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body), first degrees with Qualified Teacher Status (QTS)/registration with a General Teaching Council (GTC), postgraduate bachelors degree at level H, enhanced first degrees (including those leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body), first degrees obtained concurrently with a diploma and intercalated first degrees.

Other undergraduate includes qualification aims equivalent to and below first degree level, including, but not limited to, Professional Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) at level H (unless shown separately), foundation degrees (unless shown separately), diplomas in higher education (including those with eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body), Higher National Diploma (HND), Higher National Certificate (HNC), Diploma of Higher Education (DipHE), Certificate of Higher Education (CertHE), foundation courses at higher education level, National Vocational Qualification (NVQ)/Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) at NQF levels 4 and 5, post-degree diplomas and certificates at undergraduate level (including those in Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector), professional qualifications at undergraduate level, other undergraduate diplomas and certificates including post-registration health and social care courses, other formal higher education qualifications of less than degree standard, institutional undergraduate credit and non-formal undergraduate qualifications.

Qualification obtained

Qualification obtained is taken from the qualification awarded to the student during the reporting year, usually at the end of an instance. The qualification awarded may be different to the student's qualification aim, and the student may be awarded more than one qualification during the reporting period.

Qualification obtained is based on the HESA qualification obtained population and therefore also includes qualifications awarded from dormant, writing-up and sabbatical status.

The groupings are as Level of study, except in analysis where the following groupings are be used:

Higher degree includes doctorate (incorporating New Route PhD) and masters degrees studied primarily through research and those not studied primarily through research, and postgraduate bachelors degrees at level M. Masters in Teaching and Learning are included in this category.

In certain analyses higher degree is disaggregated into Doctorate and Other higher degree, based on the following groupings:

Doctorate includes doctorate degrees (incorporating New Route PhD) obtained primarily through research and not obtained primarily through research written up as a thesis/dissertation.

Other higher degree includes masters degrees obtained/not obtained primarily through research, Masters in Teaching and Learning, pre-registration masters degrees leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body and postgraduate bachelors degrees at level M.

Other postgraduate includes postgraduate diplomas, certificates and professional qualifications, Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE at level M), level 7 Diploma in Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector, institutional postgraduate credits and non-formal postgraduate qualifications.

In certain analyses other postgraduate is disaggregated into Postgraduate Certificate in Education and Other postgraduate qualifications, based on the following groupings:

Postgraduate Certificate in Education are those PGCE qualifications which are pitched at level M.

Other postgraduate qualifications includes postgraduate diplomas, certificates and professional qualifications, level 7 Diploma in Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector, institutional postgraduate credits and non-formal postgraduate qualifications.

Class of first degree indicates the qualification class obtained. Certain qualifications obtained at first degree level are not subject to classification of award, notably medical and general degrees. These, together with ordinary degrees and aegrotat qualifications have been included within Unclassified. Third class honours, fourth class honours and pass have been aggregated as Third/Pass. Lower second and undivided second class honours have been aggregated as Lower second.

Other undergraduate includes qualification aims equivalent to and below first degree level, including, but not limited to, Professional Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) at level H (unless shown separately), foundation degrees (unless shown separately), diplomas in higher education (including those with eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body), Higher National Diploma (HND), Higher National Certificate (HNC), Diploma of Higher Education (DipHE), Certificate of Higher Education (CertHE), foundation courses at higher education level, National Vocational Qualification (NVQ)/Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) at NQF levels 4 and 5, post-degree diplomas and certificates at undergraduate level (including those in Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector), professional qualifications at undergraduate level, other undergraduate diplomas and certificates including post-registration health and social care courses, other formal higher education qualifications of less than degree standard, institutional undergraduate credit and non-formal undergraduate qualifications.

In analyses where other undergraduate is disaggregated into Professional Graduate Certificate in Education, Foundation degree, HND/DipHE and Other undergraduate qualifications, the following groupings are used:

Professional Graduate Certificate in Education are those PGCE qualifications which are pitched at level H.

Foundation degree (e.g. FdA, FdSc) were introduced to provide vocational HE qualifications at level I.

HND/DipHE includes Diplomas of Higher Education (DipHE) (including those leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body) and Higher National Diplomas (HND).

Other undergraduate qualifications includes Higher National Certificate (HNC), Certificate of Higher Education (CertHE), foundation courses at higher education (HE) level, National Vocational Qualification (NVQ)/Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) levels 4 and 5, post-degree diplomas and certificates at undergraduate level, professional qualifications at undergraduate level, other undergraduate diplomas and certificates including post-registration health and social care courses, other formal HE qualifications of less than degree standard, institutional undergraduate credit plus no formal undergraduate qualifications.

Initial teacher training (ITT)

Information about ITT students is presented as a count of instances, and tabulated separately in this publication to reduce the risk of misinterpretation.

ITT students are based on the 'Standard registration population' and includes instances that are: initial or pre-service teacher training courses leading to Qualified Teacher Status or registration as a school teacher with the General Teaching Council for Scotland; other initial teacher training courses not leading to Qualified Teacher Status nor to registration as a school teacher with the General Teaching Council for Scotland; Teaching Agency (TA) funded flexible provision (ITT).

ITT qualifiers includes qualifications obtained from the categories of ITT instances listed above, and as it is based on the 'Qualifications obtained population' includes qualifications awarded from dormant, writing-up and sabbatical status.

PGCE qualification obtained includes both Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE at level M) and Professional Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE at level H).

Bachelor of Education (BEd) and other first degree ITT qualification obtained includes: first degrees (including eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body); first degrees with Qualified Teacher Status (QTS)/registration with a General Teaching Council (GTC); enhanced first degrees at level M and level H; postgraduate bachelors degrees at level H; first degrees obtained concurrently with a diploma and intercalated first degrees.

Year of study

First year students are based on the HESA standard registration population, and are those who commenced their instance in the relevant reporting period.

Domicile

Domicile data is supplied to HESA in the form of postcodes (UK, Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man domiciled students) or country codes. Postcodes are mapped to counties, unitary authorities and UK nations using the Office for National Statistics Postcode Directory (ONSPD). Countries are mapped to geographical regions, informed by the National Statistics Country Classification 2006 grouping of countries. Where no data is supplied about the student's domicile, fee eligibility is used to assign to either UK region unknown or Non-European Union unknown.

United Kingdom (UK) domiciled students are those whose normal residence prior to commencing their programme of study was in the UK, and for the purpose of HESA analysis includes Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man. Officially, the Crown Dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man are not part of the UK or the EU. Guernsey and Jersey in this context refer to the Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, which includes their smaller islands.

Other European Union (EU) domiciled students are those whose normal residence prior to commencing their programme of study was in countries which were European Union (EU) members (excluding the UK) at 1 December of the reporting period. This includes Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.

Non-European Union (EU) domiciled students are those whose normal residence prior to commencing their programme of study was outside the EU.

Location of institution

The allocation of an institution to a geographical region is done by reference to the administrative centre of that institution. There may be students registered at institutions who are studying in regions other than that of the administrative centre of the institution.

Although The Open University teaches throughout the UK, its administrative centre is located in South East England, and is counted as a wholly English institution.

Age

Age is as at 31 August in the reporting period.

Gender

The specification for student gender falls within the scope of the Aligned Data Definitions adopted by the Information Standards Board (ISB) for education, skills and children’s services (escs).

Indeterminate gender means unable to be classified as either male or female, and is intended to identify students who are intersex, and not trans-gender nor as a proxy for not-known.

Highest qualification on entry

It should be noted that a student's highest qualification on entry is not necessarily that which was required for entry to the programme of study.

From 2010/11, a student's highest qualification on entry could be returned in either one of two coding frames in the HESA Student record coding manual QUALENT2, or QUALENT3, dependent upon the student instance's commencement date. Analysis brings these two coding frames together, using the following categories:

Postgraduate (excluding PGCE) includes all higher degrees (UK and non-UK doctorate and masters degrees and other qualifications at level D), postgraduate diplomas and certificates at level M (excluding Postgraduate and Professional Graduate Certificates in Education (PGCE at levels M and H)) and postgraduate equivalent qualifications (other taught qualifications and taught work for institutional credits at level M).

PGCE includes Postgraduate and Professional Graduate Certificates in Education and Professional Graduate Diplomas in Education (PGCE at levels M and H), with and without Qualified Teacher Status (QTS)/registration with a General Teaching Council (GTC).

First degree includes UK and non-UK first degrees, with or without honours, first degrees with honours and undergraduate qualifications with Qualified Teacher Status (QTS)/registration with a General Teaching Council (GTC) and integrated undergraduate/postgraduate taught masters degree on the enhanced/extended pattern.

Other undergraduate qualification includes other graduate qualifications of non-UK institutions, General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ)/General Scottish Vocational Qualification (GSVQ) level 4 and 5, National Vocational Qualification (NVQ)/Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) level 4 and 5, Certificates of Higher Education (CertHE), Diplomas of Higher Education (DipHE), Certificates in Education (CertEd) or Diplomas in Education (DipEd) (i.e. non-graduate initial teacher training qualification), Higher National Diplomas (HND) or Higher National Certificates (HNC) (including BTEC and SQA equivalents), foundation degrees, foundation courses at level J, graduate equivalent qualifications not elsewhere specified, other qualifications at levels H and J (i.e. other HE qualification of less than degree standard), Higher Apprenticeships level 4, other qualification at level C and undergraduate credits.

Other qualification includes Open University credits, other credits from a UK HE institution, professional qualifications, Advanced Modern Apprenticeships and other UK and non-UK qualifications (level not known).

Level 3 qualification (including A levels and Highers) includes any combinations of GCE A/AS levels, SQA Higher/SQA Advanced Higher, General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ)/General Scottish Vocational Qualification (GSVQ) level 3, National Vocational Qualification (NVQ)/Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) level 3, Ordinary National Certificate (ONC), Ordinary National Diploma (OND) (BTEC and SQA equivalents), A level equivalent qualifications not elsewhere specified, foundation courses at FE level, HE access courses (Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) recognised/not QAA recognised), Baccalaureates (AQA, Scottish, Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma level 3 and International Baccalaureates (IB) diplomas/certificates), Diplomas in Foundation Studies (Art and Design), 14-19 Advanced Diplomas level 3, Diplomas, Certificates and Awards at level 3, Cambridge Pre-U Diplomas and Certificates and other level 3 qualifications.

Qualifications at level 2 and below includes GCSE/O level qualifications/SQA O grades and Standard grades, other non-advanced qualifications, National Vocational Qualification (NVQ)/Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) level 2, 14-19 Higher Diplomas level 2 and level 1, Welsh Baccalaureate Intermediate Diplomas level 2, other qualifications at level 2, Welsh Baccalaureate Foundation Diplomas level 1 and other qualifications at level 1.

No formal qualification includes Accreditation of Prior (Experiential) Learning (APEL/APL), mature students admitted on basis of previous experience and or institution's own admissions test, or it is known that the student has no formal qualification.

Not known - nothing is known about the student's qualifications on entry to their programme of study.

Major source of tuition fees

The tuition fee awarded indicates the predominant source of the tuition fees for the student where this is known. This includes fees from UK government, research councils, charities, EU and other sources.

D. HESA aggregate offshore data

Coverage

The Aggregate offshore record for students studying wholly outside the UK (Aggregate offshore record), collects data about all students studying (to date) wholly outside the UK, who either registered with a reporting UK higher education institution (HEI) or who are studying for an award of the reporting HEI. This includes all students active at any point in the reporting period, including students who became dormant part way through the year, and those withdrawing from courses.

The small number of distance learning students studying outside the UK who are funded (e.g. Crown servants overseas and the Services), or considered fundable under Funding Council Early Statistics rules, are not included in the Aggregate offshore record, but included in the in the individualised Student record.

Students who commence their studies outside the UK and subsequently come to continue their studies within the UK are included in the Aggregate offshore record up until the point at which they enter the UK, when a full individualised record is required. Students studying under articulation arrangements but who do not meet the criteria of being either registered with the reporting HEI or studying for an award of the reporting HEI are not included in the record, nor are students who spend a sandwich, language or other year abroad as part of their overall course, which is otherwise UK based.

Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man are counted as being outside the UK, but within the European Union, within the Aggregate offshore record.

Location of institution

The allocation of an institution to a geographical region is done by reference to the administrative centre of that institution. There may be students registered at institutions who are studying in regions other than that of the administrative centre of the institution.

Although The Open University teaches throughout the UK, its administrative centre is located in South East England, and is counted as a wholly English institution.

Location of provision

Country of overseas provision data is supplied to HESA in the form of country codes. Countries are mapped to geographical regions, informed by the Office for National Statistics Country Classification 2006 grouping of countries.

Within the European Union includes students whose location of study country was a European Union (EU) member state. This includes Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. Figures from location of study in the Åland Islands, the Canary Islands, and the French overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion are included in this category.

Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man, for the purposes of these tables, are counted as within the European Union. (Officially, the Crown Dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man are not part of the UK or the EU).

Outside the European Union includes students whose location of study country was outside the EU.

Level of provision

Level of provision describes the qualification that will be obtained as a result of successful completion of studies. It is based on the coding frame used for course aim in the Student record.

HESA classifies courses according to a framework which aligns with the framework for HE qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (FHEQ), the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) (of which the framework for qualifications of HE institutions in Scotland is a constituent part) and the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) and Bologna frameworks. Details are available ahere. It includes level M for taught masters degrees, and level H for honours degrees.

Postgraduate (research) includes doctorate and masters degrees studied primarily through research (levels D and L).

Postgraduate (taught) includes doctorate and masters degrees not studied primarily through research (levels E and M).

First degree includes bachelors degrees with honours and ordinary bachelors degrees (levels H and I).

Other undergraduate includes qualification aims equivalent to and below first degree level (levels J and C).

Further education includes qualifications at FE level (level P and below).

Type of activity

Type of activity defines the arrangements under which overseas programmes are provided.

Students registered at a UK higher education institution

Overseas campus of reporting institution includes those studying at a campus set up as a branch campus of the parent institution, and as such it is seen as no different from any other campus of the institution.

Distance, flexible or distributed learning denotes educational provision leading to an award of an awarding institution delivered and/or supported and/or assessed through means which generally do not require the student to attend particular classes or events at particular times and particular locations. (There are a small number of distance learning students studying outside the UK who are funded (e.g. Crown servants overseas and the Services). These students are returned in the Student record and not included in the Aggregate offshore record.

Other arrangement including collaborative provision denotes provision leading to an award of an awarding institution delivered and/or supported and/or assessed through an arrangement with a partner organisation. Collaborative provision, sometimes described as 'franchised' provision includes consortia and joint award arrangements.

Students studying for an award of a UK higher education institution

Students studying for an award of a UK HEI are not registered students of the reporting institution but are studying for an award of the reporting institution, and are registered at an Overseas partner organisation or via some Other arrangement.

E. HESA Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) data

In general, the HESA Student record is collected in respect of all students registered at a reporting higher education institution (HEI) who follow courses that lead to the award of a qualification(s) or institutional credit, excluding those registered as studying wholly overseas. The Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) record supplements the Student record in so far as it is linked to it and collects information about what those who complete their HE experience, and respond to the DLHE questionnaire, go on to do.

Reference dates

The reference (census) dates for this DLHE return were 16 April 2012 (if the leaver obtained the qualification between 1 August 2011 and 31 December 2011) and 14 January 2013 (if the leaver obtained the qualification between 1 January 2012 and 31 July 2012).

Coverage

The DLHE target population contains all students reported to HESA for the reporting period 01 August 2011 to 31 July 2012 as obtaining relevant higher education qualifications and whose study was full-time or part-time (including sandwich students and those writing-up theses). Awards from dormant status are only included in the target population for postgraduate research students (but excluded from this publication).

Excluded from the target population are those leavers with further education level qualifications, leavers who studied mainly overseas, incoming exchange students, and deceased students.

From 2011/12 the DLHE target population includes students from all domiciles, and is no longer restricted to UK and European Union domiciled leavers. Officially, the Crown Dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man are not part of the UK or the EU. However, they are grouped with and assumed to be part of the UK in the HESA DLHE record.

Surveying these Non-EU leavers was undertaken as a pilot for 2011/12, with a clear distinction that the information collected should not be published until carefully reviewed. These leavers are therefore excluded from this publication.

Relevant qualifications for inclusion in the DLHE record are taken from the qualification awarded to the student instance during the reporting year, usually at the end of an instance. The qualification awarded may be different to the student's qualification aim, and each student instance may have a maximum of two qualifications awarded. Where two relevant qualifications are awarded, the highest award is selected as the relevant qualification for DLHE. Relevant higher education qualifications exclude intercalated degrees, awards to visiting students, students on post-registration health and social care courses, professional qualifications for serving school teachers, and awards of institutional credit.

HESA classifies courses according to a framework which aligns with the framework for HE qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (FHEQ), the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) (of which the framework for qualifications of HE institutions in Scotland is a constituent part) and the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) and Bologna frameworks. Details are available on the COURSEAIM field notes in the HESA Student record coding manual. It includes level M for taught masters degrees, and level H for honours degrees.

Following a review of the DLHE survey and consultation with government departments, the HE sector and users of the data, the DLHE survey has been re-designed to collect richer information from leavers particularly regarding their activities on the survey date. Leavers now report all the activities that they are undertaking on the census date and indicate which one they consider to be most important to them. From these responses, destination categories are derived taking into account the most important activity and, in some instances, other activities the leaver is involved in.

Consequently, the DLHE survey has different definitions for the destination categories reported. Direct comparisons should not therefore be made with figures presented in previous years.

Level of qualification obtained

Postgraduate qualifications obtained includes doctorate degrees obtained/not obtained primarily through research and New Route PhD; masters degrees obtained/not obtained primarily through research, Masters in Teaching and Learning, pre-registration masters degrees leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body and postgraduate bachelors degrees; postgraduate diplomas, certificates and professional qualifications, Postgraduate Certificates in Education or Professional Graduate Diplomas in Education (unless shown separately); other taught qualifications at level M including those leading towards registration with the Architects Registration Board (Part 2 qualification); Diplomas at level M (but excluding those specifically for Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector).

First degree qualifications obtained includes integrated undergraduate/postgraduate taught masters degrees on the enhanced/extended pattern, including those leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body, and first degrees with honours on the enhanced/extended pattern at level H; first degrees with honours/ordinary first degrees (including those leading to qualified teacher status (QTS)/registration with a General Teaching Council (GTC), but excluding those from the intercalated pattern); first degrees with honours leading towards registration with the Architects Registration Board (Part 1 qualification); pre-registration first degrees with honours/ordinary first degrees leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body; first degrees with honours and diploma; postgraduate bachelors degrees at level H.

Other undergraduate qualifications obtained includes graduate diplomas/certificates at level H; Professional Graduate Certificates in Education (unless shown separately); other qualifications at level H including those leading towards registration with the Architects Registration Board (Part 2 qualification); Certificates at level H, graduate diplomas/certificates at level I; foundation degrees (including those which on completion meet the entry requirement for pre-registration health or social care qualification); Diplomas of Higher Education (DipHE) (including those leading towards obtaining eligibility to register to practice with a health or social care or veterinary statutory regulatory body); Higher National Diplomas (HND); Certificates of Higher Education (CertHE); Higher National Certificates (HNC); Diplomas at level H (but excluding those specifically for Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector).

Mode of study

The qualification obtained mode of study used in HESA DLHE analyses re-allocates writing-up status student instance awards to their previous mode.

Full-time study includes instances where students are recorded as studying full-time (normally required to attend an institution for periods amounting to at least 24 weeks within the year of study), on thick or thin sandwich courses or on a study-related year out. During that time students are normally expected to undertake periods of study, tuition or work experience which amount to an average of at least 21 hours per week. This includes writing-up status where the mode of study was previously full-time and students changing to dormant status previously full-time.

Part-time study includes instances where students are recorded as studying part-time, or studying full-time on courses lasting less than 24 weeks, on block release or studying during the evenings only. This includes writing-up status where the mode of study was previously part-time, awards given to those on sabbatical and students changing to dormant status previously part-time.

Age

Age is as at 31 July 2012.

Gender

The specification for student gender falls within the scope of the Aligned Data Definitions adopted by the Information Standards Board (ISB) – www.education.gov.uk/escs-isb) for education, skills and children’s services (escs).

Indeterminate gender means unable to be classified as either male or female, and is intended to identify students who are intersex, and not trans-gender nor as a proxy for not-known.

Activity and most important activity

In the DLHE survey leavers are able to report what they are doing in relation to both employment and study. They are able to report up to eight individual activities, of which one must be indicated to be the 'most important'. The categories for reporting these activities, and the most important activity, are as follows:

• Working full-time (including self-employed/freelance, voluntary or other unpaid work, developing a professional portfolio/creative practice or on an internship)
• Working part-time (including self-employed/freelance, voluntary or other unpaid work, developing a professional portfolio/creative practice or on an internship)
• Unemployed and looking for work
• Due to start a job in the next month
• Engaged in full-time further study, training or research
• Engaged in part-time further study, training or research
• Taking time out in order to travel
• Something else.

These activities are used to derive a category for publication that reflects the range of activities undertaken. Leavers identified as ineligible, or who have explicitly refused to provide information are grouped for publication as 'Ineligibility or explicit refusal'. All other respondents are categorised according to their range of activities.

Status Most important activity If any other activity includes Derived activity category
Ineligibility or explicit refusal     Ineligibility or explicit refusal
All other Working full-time Engaged in full-time study, training or research OR Engaged in part-time further study, training or research Primarily in work and also studying
Otherwise Full-time work
Working part-time Engaged in full-time study, training or research OR Engaged in part-time further study, training or research Primarily in work and also studying
Otherwise Part-time work
Unemployed and looking for work   Unemployed
Due to start a job in the next month Working full-time Full-time work
Engaged in full-time further study, training or research, provided that Working full-time has not been selected. Full-time study
Working part-time, provided that Working full-time AND Engaged in full-time further study, training or research have not been selected. Part-time work
Otherwise Due to start work
Engaged in full-time further study, training or research Working full-time OR Working part-time Primarily studying and also in work
Otherwise Full-time study
Engaged in part-time further study, training or research Working full-time OR Working part-time Primarily studying and also in work
Otherwise Part-time study
Taking time out in order to travel   Other
Something else   Other

Derived activity categories

Full-time work includes those who indicated their most important activity was working full-time, and whose other activities did not include either full-time or part-time further study, training or research, and those who were due to start a job in the next month and whose other activities included working full-time.

Part-time work includes those who indicated their most important activity was working part-time, and whose other activities did not include either full-time or part-time further study, training or research. It also includes those where the most important activity was due to start a job in the next month and other activities included working part-time but not working full-time, or engaged in full-time further study, training or research.

Primarily in work and also studying includes those who indicated their most important activity was working full-time or part-time, and whose other activities included full-time or part-time study, training or research.

Primarily studying and also in work includes those who indicated their most important activity was full-time or part-time study, training or research, and whose other activities included working full-time or part-time.

Full-time study includes those who indicated their most important activity was full-time further study, training or research, and whose other activities did not include working full-time or part-time. It also includes those where the most important activity was due to start a job in the next month, and an additional activity included full-time further study, training or research, provided that working full-time was not also reported as an activity.

Part-time study includes those who indicated their most important activity was part-time further study, training or research, and whose other activities did not include working full-time or part-time.

Due to start work includes those who indicated in their most important activity that they were due to start a job in the next month, but neither working full-time, working part-time, or further study was reported as an activity.

Unemployed includes those who indicated in their most important activity that they were unemployed and looking for work.

Other includes those whose most important activity was either taking time out in order to travel, or something else.

In some analyses, these categories are grouped:

Work includes both full-time work and part-time work.

Further study includes both full-time study and part-time study.

Work and further study includes both primarily in work and also studying, and primarily studying and also in work.

Where Due to start work is not shown as a separate analytical category, this has been grouped with Unemployed.

Employment basis

This describes the HE leaver's own assessment of the basis of their employment in the work they were doing on the census date. The information captured relates to the employment activity the HE leaver considers to be their main job.

Location of employment

This describes the location of the HE leaver's place of work. Data is supplied to HESA in the form of postcodes (for employment in the UK, Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man), town/city name, or country codes. Postcodes are mapped to counties, unitary authorities, regions (formerly Government Office Regions) and UK countries using the Office for National Statistics Postcode Directory (ONSPD). Countries are mapped to geographical regions, informed by the National Statistics Country Classification 2006 grouping of countries.

European Union (EU) includes Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.

Other EEA countries includes the European Economic Area countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.

Other Europe includes Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus (Non-European-Union), Faroe Islands, Georgia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Svalbard and Jan Mayen, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, Vatican City and Europe not otherwise specified.

In some analyses, the term Non-EU is used. This groups the countries listed in ‘Other EEA countries' and ‘Other Europe', as well as Africa, Asia, Australasia, Middle East, North America and South America.

Unknown includes those whose location of employment was reported as not known or stateless, including question not answered.

The Standard Occupational Classification

In 2011 HESA adopted the SOC2010 Standard Occupational Classification (which replaced SOC2000), for comparability of sector data with other areas of the economy. A variant of the SOC2010 was created for the coding of occupational information collected in the DLHE survey. The classification is termed SOC2010 (DLHE) and details are available from the Downloadable files section of the HESA DLHE coding manual on the HESA website (Standard Occupational Classification (2010) for the Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education Institutions: SOC 2010 (DLHE)) (pdf).

F. HESA staff data

Coverage

The HESA Staff record provides data in respect of the characteristics of members of all academic and non-academic staff employed under a contract of employment at a reporting higher education institution (HEI) in the UK. Staff employed under consultancy contracts, or on the basis of payment of fees for services, without a contract of employment, are not included in the record.

The reporting period for the 2011/12 HESA Staff record is 1 August 2011 to 31 July 2012.

The record is collected in three sections; staff person, staff contract and staff grade table. The person table contains one record for every person employed by an institution during the HESA reporting period and contains attributes of the individual such as birth date, gender and ethnicity. Each person's employment with an institution will be governed by a legally-binding contract and each contract that exists is recorded on the contract table. If a person has a single contract with the institution there will be one record on the person table and one record on the contract table. If a person has three contracts with an institution there will be one record on the person table and three records on the contract table.

The range of data required about an individual and the contract(s) that they hold will depend on the nature of those contracts and also the classification of the activity for which the contract exists.

Atypical staff are those members of staff whose contracts involve working arrangements that are not permanent, involve complex employment relationships and/or involve work away from the supervision of the normal work provider.

For atypical staff only a minimum data set is required.

Staff (excluding atypical) are those members of staff where one or more of the contracts held during the reporting period cannot be defined as atypical, and includes open-ended/permanent and fixed-term contracts.

For these staff there is a requirement to return a wider range of data (which may include salary information and start and end dates of employment and contracts).

Academic staff are defined as academic professionals who are responsible for planning, directing and undertaking academic teaching and research within higher education institutions (HEIs). They also include vice-chancellors, medical practitioners, dentists, veterinarians and other health care professionals who undertake lecturing or research activities.

Non-academic staff are defined as those that do not have an academic employment function. They include managers, non-academic professionals, student welfare workers, secretaries, caretakers and cleaners.

The HESA staff atypical population is an indicator of those individuals who have only atypical contracts within the reporting period.

The HESA staff atypical population is used in analyses of atypical staff person attributes by full-person equivalents (FPE).

The HESA staff contract population is an indicator of those contracts that were active on 1 December within the reporting period. Atypical staff contracts are not counted in this population. Other staff with a default (or unknown) contract start date, a default (or unknown) contract end date and a contract full-time equivalent (FTE) of zero are also not counted in this population.

The HESA staff contract population is used in analyses of staff contract attributes by full-person equivalents (FPE).

In Higher Education Statistics for the United Kingdom, introduction Tables I and J and Charts 7 and 8, plus main Table 17 are based on the HESA staff contract population. Main Table 18 is based on the HESA staff atypical population.

Full-person equivalent

Individuals can hold more than one contract with an institution and each contract may involve more than one activity. In analyses staff counts have been divided amongst the activities in proportion to the declared FTE for each activity. This results in counts of full person equivalents (FPE). Staff FPE counts are calculated on the basis of contract activities that were active on 1 December of the reporting period (using the HESA staff contract population).

Atypical full-person equivalent

Individuals can hold atypical contracts with an institution and each contract may involve more than one activity. In analyses staff counts have been divided amongst the activities in proportion to the declared FTE for each activity. This results in counts of full person equivalents (FPE). Atypical staff FPE counts are calculated on the basis of those individuals who have only atypical contracts that were active during the reporting period (using the HESA atypical staff population).

In Higher Education Statistics for the United Kingdom, Table 17 shows counts of Full-person equivalents, Table 18 shows counts of Atypical full-person equivalents.

Mode of employment

Full-time staff are those whose contracts state that their mode of employment is full-time. This includes staff who work full-time for part of a year and term-time only staff who work full-time during the term.

Part-time staff are those staff that work anything less than full-time.

Mode of employment is an attribute of the contract, not the person. Therefore, a person will be counted as wholly part-time, even if they hold a number of part-time contracts that sum to one FTE. The FPE allocated to the full-time category will only reflect the people that hold a full-time contract. This is consistent with the treatment of other attributes of the contract.

Terms of employment

Terms of employment describe the type of contract(s) a member of staff has with the higher education institution (HEI) at the date the data is returned to HESA, or date of leaving if earlier.

Open-ended/Permanent staff are those who are employed on a contract of employment that states the member of staff as permanent or on an open-ended contract. This includes term-time only staff who are employed on an open-ended contract.

Fixed-term contract staff are those who are employed for a fixed period of time or have an end date on their contract of employment. This includes staff on rolling fixed-term contracts.

Atypical staff are those whose working arrangements are not permanent, involve complex employment relationships and/or involve work away from the supervision of the normal work provider. These may be characterised by a high degree of flexibility for both the work provider and the working person, and may involve a triangular relationship that includes an agent. Source: DTI Discussion Document on Employment Status, July 2003, paragraph 23.

In addition to this definition from the DTI, some HE specific guidance has been devised by HESA in consultation with HEIs. Atypical contracts meet one or more of the following conditions:

• Are for less than four consecutive weeks - meaning that no statement of terms and conditions needs to be issued.
• Are for one-off/short-term tasks - for example answering phones during clearing, staging an exhibition, organising a conference. There is no mutual obligation between the work provider and working person beyond the given period of work or project. In some cases individuals will be paid a fixed fee for the piece of work unrelated to hours/time spent.
• Involve work away from the supervision of the normal work provider - but not as part of teaching company schemes or for teaching and research supervision associated with the provision of distance learning education.
• Involve a high degree of flexibility often in a contract to work as-and-when required - for example conference catering, student ambassadors, student demonstrators.

Source of basic salary

Source of basic salary indicates whether contract salaries are paid wholly or in part from funds other than general institution funds. Whether income can be regarded as general institution funds or not depends on the distinction between general and specific income as defined in the Statement of recommended practice: accounting for further and higher education (SORP), published by Universities UK. Specific income is that which can only be applied to a specific purpose or activity so designated by the grantor or donor.

Wholly institutionally financed staff contracts are those paid wholly from general institution funds.

Principally institutionally financed staff contracts are paid mainly from general institution funds and partly from another source. Principally financed by the institution is defined as that where the proportion financed by the institution equals, or is greater than, 50% of the basic salary.

Other sources of finance staff contracts are paid mainly, or wholly, from sources other than general institution funds (where the proportion financed by other sources is greater than 50%). Other sources includes contracts returned as: NHS/General Medical or General Dental practice or Department of Health; BIS Research Councils (including research councils - not specified); UK central government bodies and local authorities; UK industry, commerce and public corporations; Charities (including Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, other Association of Medical Research Charities (AMRC) and other charitable foundations); EU government bodies; EU other; Other overseas sources plus Other sources not listed.

The academic employment function of a member of staff relates to the academic contract of employment and not the actual work undertaken.

Teaching only staff are those whose contracts of employment state that they are employed only to undertake teaching.

Research only staff are those whose contracts of employment state that the primary academic employment function is research only, even though the contract may include a limited number of hours teaching.

Teaching and research staff are those whose contracts of employment state that they are employed to undertake both teaching and research.

Teaching/Teaching and research staff are those whose contracts of employment state that they are employed only to undertake teaching, plus staff whose contracts of employment state that they are employed to undertake both teaching and research.

Neither teaching nor research staff are those whose contracted academic employment function is neither teaching nor research, e.g. Vice-Chancellor.

Location of institution

The allocation of an institution to a geographical region is done by reference to the administrative centre of that institution. There may be staff employed in regions other than that of the administrative centre of the institution.

Although the Open University teaches throughout the UK, its administrative centre is located in South East England, and is counted as a wholly English institution.

SOC - Occupational coding for higher education staff

The Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) provides a national standard for categorising occupational information. SOC forms the basis of occupational classification in a variety of national surveys that collect statistical information such as the Labour Force Survey and New Earnings Survey. The utilisation of SOC for classifying occupations within the HE sector therefore both allows for the heterogeneity of occupations that exist and enables comparisons to be made with other sectors of the economy and from a variety of data sources.

However, some difficulties emerge in the direct application of SOC for occupational coding within the HE sector. At the most aggregate level, SOC distinguishes nine broad categories termed Major Groups. The titles associated with these Major Groups, which by necessity have to be general in their nature to encompass all occupations, do not provide an intuitive method of classifying the occupations within HE. Additionally, the coding manuals of the Standard Occupational Classification contain information on many occupations and job titles that are not relevant to the HE sector.

The classification of occupations within higher education has therefore necessitated the development of a variant of the national standard that is relevant for the HE sector. This enables the classification of job titles found within the HE sector to fall into one of 13 broad occupational categories.

Activity

 1 Managers 2A Academic professionals 2B Non-academic professionals 3A Laboratory, engineering, building, IT & medical technicians (including nurses) 3B Student welfare workers, careers advisers, vocational training instructors, personnel & planning officers 3C Artistic, media, public relations, marketing & sports instruction occupations 4A Library assistants, clerks & general administrative assistants 4B Secretaries, typists, receptionists & telephonists 5 Chefs, gardeners, electrical & construction trades, mechanical fitters & printers 6 Caretakers, residential wardens, sports & leisure attendants, nursery nurses & care occupations 7 Retail & customer service occupations 8 Drivers, maintenance supervisors & plant operatives 9 Cleaners, catering assistants, security officers, porters & maintenance workers

Academic staff are defined as academic professionals who are responsible for planning, directing and undertaking academic teaching and research within HE institutions. They also include vice-chancellors, medical practitioners, dentists, veterinarians and other health care professionals who undertake lecturing or research activities. All academic staff fall into group 2A of the SOC classification, regardless of their discipline (e.g. science, engineering, social sciences, humanities, languages).

Non-academic staff are defined as members of staff who fall into one of the remaining 12 occupational categories such as managers, non-academic professionals, student welfare workers, secretaries, caretakers and cleaners.

Salary range

Salary range is based on the contract salary for members of staff at each institution where applicable, at 31 July in the reporting period, or the end date of the contract if earlier.

For analysis purposes the contract salaries are grouped into six salary ranges, the upper and lower of each range aligned with salary spine points used in the Framework Salary Spine, as detailed in the document here (Salary from 1 August 2011 column).

Contract salary not applicable includes members of staff for whom the concept of a per annum contractual salary does not apply e.g. hourly paid staff, staff with zero hour contracts etc.

Contract salaries reported to HESA based on the reporting of the Framework Salary Spine, the Framework Clinical Spine, plus salaries not set against a nationally negotiated pay spine are included in this analysis. Where HESA is provided with both a salary point (within the Framework Pay Spine or Framework Clinical Spine) and an enhanced salary figure (e.g. London weighting), the actual enhanced salary is used.

Staff with atypical contracts are not included in the salary range analysis.

Note: Staff salary relates to the entire contract and not the individual activities that may be associated with that contract. Therefore, whilst a staff contract may be assigned to more than one activity group, the salary displayed will reflect the entire contract.

Gender

The specification for staff gender falls within the scope of the Aligned Data Definitions adopted by the Information Standards Board (ISB) for education, skills and children's services (escs).

Indeterminate gender means unable to be classified as either male or female, and is intended to identify staff who are intersex, and not trans-gender nor as a proxy for not-known.

G. HESA finance statistics return (FSR) data

Coverage

The annual HESA Finance Statistics Return (FSR) is the main source of historical financial information on the total activities of all UK higher education institutions (HEIs). The FSR provides data in respect of the consolidated income and expenditure account, consolidated statement of total recognised gains and losses, consolidated balance sheet and consolidated cash flow statement. The figures recorded for the consolidated income and expenditure account, balance sheet headings, statement of recognised gains and losses and cash flow statement should be the same as those recorded in the HEI's audited/published financial statements. The financial statements should be prepared in accordance with the Statement of recommended practice: accounting for further and higher education (SORP), published by Universities UK, and comply with the financial reporting requirements contained in any UK legislation relevant to their constitution, such as the Companies Act and the Charities Act. The FSR uses the principles in the SORP to analyse the financial statements in greater detail than is required for published financial statements.

A copy of the 2011/12 FSR template [xls 487 KB], used by HEIs to return their data to HESA, can be downloaded from the HESA website. The complete FSR with HE-BCI Survey Collection (2011/12) coding manual can be viewed here. This coding manual contains guidance to HEIs for the return of their finance data, and includes all supporting documentation.

HESA 2011/12 financial data relates to the institutions' financial year 1 August 2011 to 31 July 2012.

Income

Total income identifies the gross income position, i.e. it includes income attributable to a share in joint venture(s).

Less: share of income in joint venture(s) is used to deduct the share of income in joint venture(s) from the total income.

Net income is total income less the share of income in joint venture(s).

A joint venture is an entity in which the reporting HEI holds an interest on a long-term basis, and is jointly controlled by the HEI and one or more ventures under a contractual arrangement. The HEI's share of income (and expenditure) should be recognised in the HEI's income (and expenditure) account.

Surplus/(deficit) for the year is calculated as net income minus total expenditure.

Sources of income

There are five main sources of income collected in the HESA FSR: Funding body grants; Tuition fees and education contracts; Research grants and contracts; Other income and Endowment and investment income.

The total of each of these headings should be the same as the HEI's financial statement, showing the gross position for the HEI.

Funding body grants

Funding body grants includes those from the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW), the Scottish Further and Higher Education Funding Council (SFC), the Teaching Agency (TA) and the Department for Employment and Learning Northern Ireland (DEL(NI)).

Grants for HE provision (SFC grants for all provision)
This includes recurrent and capital grants as defined below in respect of higher education (HE) provision, except in Scotland where this category also includes grants for further education (FE) provision.

Recurrent (Teaching) includes the total grant (or main and associated grants) for teaching, including widening participation and tuition fee compensation, as shown in the annual grant letter or additional grant letter from the funding councils.

Recurrent (Research) includes the total grant (or main and associated grants) for research as shown in the annual grant letter or additional grant letter from the funding councils.

Recurrent - other (including special funding) includes all other recurrent grants and grants to support special initiatives as stated in the annual grant letter or additional grant letter from the funding councils. Income relating to non-capitalised expenditure, for example Learning and Teaching Capital Investment Fund or Research Capital Investment Fund (RCIF) are included in this category.

Release of deferred capital grants comprises the release of deferred capital grants for buildings, which includes where capital funding (project or formula) has been applied to the purchase of an asset that has been capitalised (and includes grants from the RCIF and Strategic Development Fund (SDF)) and equipment, which includes where the equipment grant (including grants from the Science Research Investment Fund (SRIF), SDF, Project Capital Allocation (PCA) and Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning) has been applied to the purchase of furniture or other assets that have been capitalised.

Grants for FE provision (not applicable to SFC) includes all funding council grants for the provision of further education (FE). Grants from HE funding councils and FE funding councils (which includes grants from the Skills Funding Agency and Department of Education) are added together. This category does not apply to SFC funded institutions, as they do not receive separately identified grants for non-advanced/FE provision.

Tuition fees and education contracts

This includes all income received in respect of fees for students on all courses for which fees are charged. Where fees are waived in whole or in part, the income due, though not received, is included.

The source of tuition fees and education contracts includes the Student Loans Company (SLC), Local Education Authorities (LEA), Student Awards Agency for Scotland (SAAS), the Department for Employment and Learning Northern Ireland (DEL(NI)), the Department of Health (DH) (including the National Health Service (NHS) and NHS Trusts), Regional Offices of the NHS Executive (RONE) and the Scottish Home and Health Department (SHHD), plus other sources not listed, including individual students.

Following the introduction of variable student fees in the 2006/07 academic year for institutions in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, this information is administration specific. From 2008/09 postgraduate fee income from research and taught students has been separated.

Full-time undergraduate includes the following full-time and sandwich undergraduate course fees for home and EU domiciled students: all fees in England and Northern Ireland; standard and non-standard fees in Scotland; plus new (with a start date on, or after, the beginning of the current reporting period) and continuing (with a start date prior to the current reporting period) fees in Wales.

Full-time postgraduate includes the following postgraduate (research and taught) course fees for home and EU domiciled students: all fees in England and Northern Ireland; standard rate and non-standard rate fees in Scotland; plus new (with a start date on, or after, the beginning of the current reporting period) and continuing (with a start date prior to the current reporting period) fees in Wales.

Part-time undergraduate includes all fees for part-time undergraduate courses for home and EU domiciled students in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Part-time postgraduate includes all fees for part-time postgraduate (research and taught) courses for home and EU domiciled students in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Non-EU domicile includes fees for all HE courses for students whose normal residence prior to commencing their programme of study was outside the EU.

Non-credit-bearing course fees includes all fee income received in respect of non-credit-bearing liberal adult education, continuing education or extra-mural courses.

FE course fees includes fee income received for the provision of FE/non-advanced courses.

Research training support grants includes all income from charities (awarded by open competitive process) for general research studentships, and all grants made by Research Councils and other bodies in support of the training of research students. This includes bench fees and Collaborative Awards in Science and Engineering (CASE) awards. It also includes income from Doctoral Training Grants and Collaborative Training Accounts (or similar postgraduate grants) including the tuition fee element.

Other fees and support grants includes FE course fees received for the provision of FE/non-advanced courses; Research training support grants made by research councils and other bodies in support of the training of research students.

Research grants and contracts

This includes all income in respect of externally sponsored research carried out by the institution or its subsidiary undertaking for which directly related expenditure has been incurred.

BIS Research Councils, the Royal Society, British Academy and The Royal Society of Edinburgh

This includes all research grants and contracts income from Research Councils sponsored by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), The Royal Society, British Academy and The Royal Society of Edinburgh, returned to HESA under the following categories:

• Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
• Medical Research Council (MRC)
• Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
• Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
• Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
• Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)
• Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
• Other (i.e. sponsored research grants and contracts income not included above).

UK-based charities includes all research grants and contracts income from all charitable foundations, charitable trusts, etc. based in the UK which are registered with the Charities Commission or those recognised as charities by the Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator (OSCR) in Scotland. Income from UK-based charities is split between those with an open competitive process for the allocation of funds and other charities.

UK-based charities (open competitive process) includes research grants or contracts income from UK-based charities that was available to more than one institution through direct competition, awarded to the institution that demonstrated the highest quality research proposal according to external peer review. It also includes grants where it can be shown that the charity took external expert advice on its choice of institution, and either the charity had made it known that it was open to grant applications from other institutions, even though an open invitation to bid for the particular grant was not issued; or the charity restricted the funding opportunity on a reasoned basis in that particular requirements of the project could only be met by a limited number of institutions (i.e. where a project required highly specialist expertise or facilities, or a specific regional focus). Income awarded by the Education Endowment Foundation is included under this heading where funding originated in grants made by non-government sources.

UK-based charities (other) includes research grants or contracts income from UK-based charities that does not meet the definition of open competition.

UK central government bodies, local authorities, health and hospital authorities includes all research grants and contract income from UK central government bodies, UK local authorities and UK health and hospital authorities, except Research Councils and UK public corporations. This includes government departments and other organisations (including registered charities) financed from central government funds. Research grants and contracts from non-departmental public bodies (NDPBs) such as the British Council are also included in this source of income. Income awarded by the Education Endowment Foundation is included under this heading where funding originated grants made by UK government sources.

UK industry, commerce and public corporations includes all research grants and contracts income from industrial and commercial companies and public corporations (defined as publicly owned trading bodies, usually statutory organisations with a substantial degree of financial independence) operating in the UK.

EU government bodies includes all research grants and contracts income from all government bodies operating in the EU, which includes the European Commission, but excludes bodies in the UK.

EU-based charities (open competitive process) includes research grants or contracts income from EU bodies with exclusively charitable purposes (consistent with the definition set out in the Charities Act 2006 and which exists for the public benefit in a manner which is consistent with the Public Benefit Guidance published by the Charity Commission for England and Wales), that was available to more than one institution through direct competition, awarded to the institution that demonstrated the highest quality research proposal according to external peer review. It also includes grants where it can be shown that the charity took external expert advice on its choice of institution, and either the charity had made it known that it was open to grant applications from other institutions, even though an open invitation to bid for the particular grant was not issued; or the charity restricted the funding opportunity on a reasoned basis in that particular requirements of the project could only be met by a limited number of institutions (i.e. where a project required highly specialist expertise or facilities, or a specific regional focus).

EU industry, commerce and public corporations includes all research grants and contracts income from industrial and commercial companies and public corporations (defined as publicly owned trading bodies, usually statutory corporations, with a substantial degree of financial independence) operating in the EU outside of the UK.

EU other includes all research grants and contracts income from EU-based non-competitive charities and any other EU income not otherwise specified.

Non-EU-based charities (open competitive process) includes research grants or contracts income from non-EU bodies with exclusively charitable purposes (consistent with the definition set out in the Charities Act 2006 and which exists for the public benefit in a manner which is consistent with the Public Benefit Guidance published by the Charity Commission for England and Wales), that was available to more than one institution through direct competition, awarded to the institution that demonstrated the highest quality research proposal according to external peer review. It also includes grants where it can be shown that the charity took external expert advice on its choice of institution, and either the charity had made it known that it was open to grant applications from other institutions, even though an open invitation to bid for the particular grant was not issued; or the charity restricted the funding opportunity on a reasoned basis in that particular requirements of the project could only be met by a limited number of institutions (i.e. where a project required highly specialist expertise or facilities, or a specific regional focus).

Non-EU industry, commerce and public corporations includes all research grants and contracts income from industrial and commercial companies and public corporations (defined as publicly owned trading bodies, usually statutory corporations, with a substantial degree of financial independence) operating outside the EU.

Non-EU other includes all research grants and contracts income from all non-EU-based non-competitive charities and any other non-EU income not otherwise specified.

Other sources includes all research grants and contracts income not covered above. This includes income from other higher education institutions (HEIs) where the HEI is the original contractor.

Other income

Other income - other services rendered

This includes all income in respect of services rendered to outside bodies, including the supply of goods and consultancies.

UK central government bodies, local authorities, health and hospital authorities and EU government bodies includes all non-research income from UK central government bodies, non-departmental public bodies, UK local authorities and UK health and hospital authorities (except any included under tuition fees and education contracts), plus all non-research income from all government bodies operating in the EU, including the European Commission but excluding the UK. This includes European Social Fund (ESF) grants. Income awarded by the Education Endowment Foundation is included under this heading where funding originated grants made by UK government sources.

Other includes all non-research income for services rendered to industrial and commercial companies and public corporations. It includes all validation fees for courses such as those run by other institutions.

Other income – other

This includes all other income not included in other services rendered.

Residences and catering operations (including conferences) includes the gross income from residences, catering and conference operations.

Grants from local authorities includes income from local authorities providing capital or revenue for the purpose to which the grant will be applied.

Income from health and hospital authorities (excluding teaching contracts for student provision) includes income received from UK health or hospital authorities for the funding of any employees of the institution, including posts in academic teaching, except for those relating to the provision of a service, and excluding income provided for research.

Release of deferred capital grants includes an institution's capital grant from a source other than a Funding Council, to finance, or partly finance, the construction or acquisition of a fixed asset.

Income from intellectual property rights includes all income received from intellectual property rights such as licences and patents.

Other operating income includes all other operating income not covered above such as Trans-European Mobility Scheme for University Studies (TEMPUS) and European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS) grants.

Endowment and investment income

This includes income from specific endowment asset investments, general endowment asset investments, other investment income and other interest receivable. Any net credit from pension scheme assets and from interest on pension scheme liabilities are included in this category.

Expenditure activities

Categories of expenditure are further analysed by costs incurred from the activities associated with Academic departments, Academic services, Administration and central services, Premises, Residences and catering operations (including conferences), Research grants and contracts and Other expenditure.

This includes all expenditure incurred by or on behalf of academic departments (including departments of continuing education), and expenditure incurred in connection with special and short courses which is not reimbursable by research councils or other bodies in respect of work carried out on their behalf.

This includes expenditure incurred by centralised academic services such as the library and learning resource centres, central computers and computer networks (including maintenance and operating costs), expenditure on centrally run museums, galleries and observatories, and any other general academic services not covered elsewhere.

This includes expenditure incurred by Central administration and services, General education expenditure, and Staff and student facilities.

Central administration and services includes expenditure in respect of central administrative staff and such payments to Heads of Institutions, Professors, Deans, Tutors, Faculty Officers and the like as are made in respect of central (as distinct from departmental) administrative work. This category also includes expenditure associated with the running costs of an administrative computer system and the following other costs if not charged to their relevant academic cost centre: public relations, advertising, recruitment, removal expenses of all staff, publications (excluding educational publications), rating or council tax advisors, security of wages, bank charges (excluding interest), central postage, superannuation management, expenses of head of institution, legal and audit fees, general insurance costs not included elsewhere and telephone costs where centrally charged.

General education expenditure includes expenditure incurred on examinations, fellowships, scholarships, prizes and other expenditure of a general educational nature. It includes the direct costs of examinations for example of external examiners, salaries, printing, etc. Also included are fee remission and provisions for bad debts in respect of unpaid fees and the following items that cannot be appropriately charged elsewhere: educational publications, public lectures, concerts and exhibitions, subscriptions and contributions to learned societies and similar bodies, contributions to representative bodies and agencies, works of art, contributions to the institution's press, research projects not returned under other heads, representation at conferences, explorations and expeditions, administration of non-departmental arts centres, widening participation activity and student recruitment costs from home and overseas.

Staff and student facilities includes expenditure incurred on the provision of facilities and amenities for the use of students and/or staff, e.g. Careers Advisory Service, all grants to student societies, emoluments to wardens of halls of residence, accommodation office, athletic and sporting facilities (excluding maintenance), transport, OTC (including Air and Naval squadrons), chaplaincy, student counselling, crèches and the institution's health service.

Premises

This includes all expenditure incurred (whether centrally or departmentally) on the management of premises (including academic buildings, central academic services, art centres, institution's health service premises, pavilions, sports buildings, etc.) and on roads and grounds, except residences and catering.

Residences and catering operations (including conferences)

This includes the gross expenditure incurred in providing the residence, catering and any conference operations, including the cost of maintenance of residential and catering premises, salaries and any other identifiable costs relating to these operations. The depreciation costs and financing costs of these operations are included in the appropriate categories of expenditure.

Research grants and contracts

This includes the total of the direct costs attributed to research grants and contracts as detailed for Research grants and contracts income.

Other expenditure

This includes pension cost adjustments made to staff pension costs in the income and expenditure account (i.e. the difference between actual contributions made and current service cost figure) and total direct costs attributed to other services rendered and all other expenditure not covered above.

Categories of expenditure

Staff costs covers the costs of all staff for whom the institution is liable to pay Class 1 National Insurance contributions and/or who have a contract of employment with the institution, and includes any redundancy or restructuring payments (that are not treated as exceptional items) made to these staff. It includes costs in respect of academic professionals (Standard Occupational Classification Group 2A, as defined in the HESA Staff record), whose primary function is planning, directing and undertaking academic teaching and/or research, and all other staff, paid from within the budgets of academic departments and allocated to the appropriate cost centre.

Other costs includes other operating expenses (costs in respect of payments to non-contracted staff or individuals, all other non-staff costs except for depreciation and interest payable, equipment which has not been depreciated, expenditure on maintenance contracts and telephone costs (calls, rental and non-capitalised equipment) if not charged to departments), depreciation (depreciation costs on capitalised equipment according to where the assets being depreciated are located) and interest and other finance costs (costs in respect of interest payable on premises, residences and catering operations (including conferences), and other expenditure).

H. UCAS data

Coverage

The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) system processes applications for full-time higher education courses, sandwich first degree, foundation degree, Diploma of Higher Education (DipHE), Higher National Diploma (HND) and Higher National Certificate (HNC) courses. These include member institutions in the United Kingdom (UK). The Nursing and Midwifery Admissions Service, through which applications for diploma-level courses were previously made, merged with UCAS for the 2008 application cycle.

The UCAS member institutions include all UK universities (with the exception of The Open University and those colleges of the University of London (Institutes and activities) which do not offer full-time undergraduate courses), most colleges and institutes of higher education (HE) and some colleges of further education (FE).

The number of member institutions in the UCAS scheme can vary from year to year due to institutions joining (or leaving) the UCAS scheme, and institutional mergers. In the 2010 application cycle there were 305 member institutions. In the 2011 entry cycle there were 302, and in 2012 324.

Population

Applicants are those who submitted an application to UCAS. Each applicant is permitted to make up to five applications on the application (six applications in 2007 and before). Applicants are classed as home (UK) or overseas based on the area of permanent residence given by them on the application . There is no direct correlation between the classification used in these UCAS tables and that used as a basis for fees assessment.

Applications data is the sum of applications from applicants who submitted their application at any time before 30 June but excludes direct applicants and those applicants who applied directly into Clearing. Direct applicants include those who returned a Record of Prior Acceptance (RPA) or an Overseas Partnership Form (OPF).

UCAS Extra, first introduced in the 2003 cycle, gives applicants holding no offers the chance to make additional applications prior to Clearing, providing them with the opportunity to be accepted at an earlier stage in the application cycle.

Adjustment is an acceptance route first introduced in 2009 through which applicants who have met and exceeded the conditions of their firm choice choose to take up an alternative offer.

Accepted applicants are those who were offered and subsequently accepted a place at a UCAS member institution regardless of the route taken. Accepted applicant data includes applicants who were accepted for deferred entry.

UCAS subject classification employs the Joint Academic Coding System (JACS). For more information on JACS coding please see the UCAS website: www.ucas.com/members-providers/our-systems/updating-courses/jacs-coding-and-principles. The subjects use JACS version 2.0 for the UCAS 2011 cycle and version 3.0 for the 2012 cycle.

Where data on subject group is tabulated for UCAS applicants, the preferred subject group is used since an applicant may submit applications to different subject areas. An applicant's predominant subject is classified as the subject area for which the applicant makes the majority of his or her applications. If no such majority exists, the applicant is classified as having no predominant subject.

Ethnic origin/ethnic group

Applicants are asked to record their ethnic origin on their UCAS application. This information is only coded for UK domiciled applicants and provision is not obligatory.

Disability

Applicants are asked to declare any disability on their UCAS application. Provision of this information is voluntary and applicants are advised that they may choose only to inform the institutions to which they apply directly. Disability data is only reported for UK domiciled applicants.

Region of domicile and region of institution

The region of domicile for UK applicants and the region of institutions are categorised using the nine England Regions (formerly Government Office Regions) and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

I. Student loans data

Data in tables 21a-21i are compiled from the Student Loans Company (SLC) 'Student support awards (loans and grants)' statistics data tables:

• Student Support for Higher Education in England: Academic Year 2012/13 (Provisional), published 29 November 2012
• Student Support for Higher Education in Wales: Academic year 2012/13 (Provisional), published 29 November 2012
• Student Support for Higher Education in Northern Ireland: Academic year 2011/12 (Final), published 29 November 2012.

These are available from www.slc.co.uk/statistics/national-statistics/newnationalstatistics1.aspx, or SLC, 100 Bothwell Street, Glasgow, G2 7JD.

England

Table 21a is compiled from 'Student Support for Higher Education in England: Academic Year 2012/13 (Provisional)' SLC Table 2, 21b from SLC Table 4a(i) and 21c from SLC Table 4a(ii).

All applications for Higher Education (HE) student finance under full time regulations from Applicants domiciled in England are assessed by Student Finance England (i.e. the Student Loans Company or English Local Authorities). If the applicant is found to be eligible they will be awarded student finance, which will start to be paid once attendance has been confirmed by the institution and the term start date has been reached. Many awards do not lead to payment because the applicant does not secure a place or chooses not to attend. The products awarded to each applicant will depend on several factors: the year that they entered HE; the loans (maintenance loan and/or tuition fee loan) they choose to take, if any; whether they submit financial details to be assessed for a means tested grant; whether they are entitled to a special grant or allowance such as the Disabled Students' Allowance (DSA).

All applicants eligible to a maintenance loan can receive the non-means tested portion of the loan. Some choose not to take one even though they might have received other support, such as a maintenance grant. Some do not apply for any support at all. Table 21c 'Maintenance Loan Take Up by the estimated eligible population domiciled in England' shows the relationship between those who took out a maintenance loan and those who could have taken one, using estimates of the eligible student population from BIS. The applicant can choose to take all or part of the basic non means tested element of the maintenance loan. They can receive a higher amount if they submit financial evidence that shows their household residual income is within the range for additional maintenance loan entitlement. From 2006/07 onwards the average maintenance loan decreased because of the introduction of the Maintenance Grant. The amount of maintenance loan awarded is partly reduced in proportion to the amount of maintenance grant awarded.

Wales

Table 21d is compiled from 'Student Support for Higher Education in Wales: Academic Year 2012/13 (Provisional)' SLC Table 2, 21e from SLC Table 4a(ii) and 21f from SLC Table 4a(iii).

All applications for Higher Education (HE) student finance under full time regulations from Welsh domiciled applicants are assessed by Local Authorities in Wales. EU domiciled applicants studying in Wales are assessed by the Student Loans Company. If the applicant is found to be eligible they will be awarded student finance, which will start to be paid once attendance has been confirmed by the institution and the term start date has been reached. Many awards do not lead to payment because the applicant does not secure a place or chooses not to attend. The products awarded to each applicant will depend on several factors: the year that they entered HE; the loans (maintenance loan and/or tuition fee loan) they choose to take, if any; whether they submit financial details to be assessed for a means tested grant; whether they are entitled to a special grant or allowance such as the Disabled Students' Allowance.

DSA figures shown are still provisional although shown alongside Final figures above: Invoices continue to be received well after the end of the academic year which is why the figures are kept as provisional for one year longer than for the other products.

All applicants who are eligible for student finance can receive a maintenance loan. Some choose not to take one even though they might have received other support, such as a Learning grant. Some do not apply for any support at all. Table 21f 'Maintenance Loan take up by the estimated eligible population domiciled in Wales' shows the relationship between those who took out a maintenance loan and those who could have taken one, using estimates of the eligible student population from Welsh Government. The applicant can choose to take all or part of the basic non means tested element of the maintenance loan. They can receive a higher amount if they submit financial evidence that shows their household residual income is within the range for additional maintenance loan entitlement. From 2006/07 onwards the average maintenance loan decreased because of the introduction of the Assembly Learning Grant. The amount of maintenance loan awarded is partly reduced in proportion to the amount of Learning grant awarded.

Northern Ireland

Table 21g is compiled from 'Student Support for Higher Education in Northern Ireland: Academic Year 2011/12 (Final)' SLC Table 2, 21h from SLC Table 4a(i) and 21i from SLC Table 4a(ii).

All applications for Higher Education (HE) student finance under full time regulations from Northern Ireland domiciled applicants are assessed by Education Library Boards in Northern Ireland. If the applicant is found to be eligible they will be awarded student finance, which will start to be paid once attendance has been confirmed by the institution and the term start date has been reached. Many awards do not lead to payment because the applicant does not secure a place or chooses not to attend. The products awarded to each applicant will depend on several factors: the year that they entered HE; the loans (maintenance loan and/or tuition fee loan) they choose to take, if any; whether they submit financial details to be assessed for a means tested grant; whether they are entitled to a special grant or allowance such as the Disabled Students' Allowance (DSA).

All Northern Ireland domiciled applicants who are eligible for student finance can receive a Maintenance Loan. Some choose not to take one even though they might have received other support, such as a Maintenance Grant. Some do not apply for any support at all. Table 21i 'Maintenance Loan take up by the estimated eligible population domiciled in Northern Ireland' shows the relationship between those who took out a maintenance loan and those who could have taken one, using estimates of the eligible student population from DEL. The applicant can choose to take all or part of the basic non means tested element of the Maintenance Loan. They can receive a higher amount if they submit financial evidence that shows their household residual income is within the range for additional Maintenance Loan entitlement.

Applicant

This is a person applying for financial support. Not all applicants take up a place in a Higher Education Institution (HEI). Applicants become students once they take up a place and the SLC receives a confirmation of their attendance.

Award

The number of, and amount of money awarded to applicants for student finance who have passed the eligibility criteria as stipulated within the student finance regulations, and have been assessed for the respective support package accordingly. Awards will be paid on condition that the applicant subsequently attends the higher education institute (HEI) at which point they will be considered a student, and payments will be released according to the payment schedule for the support types awarded.

Country of study

The country in which the higher education institute is located to which the applicant intends to study, or is studying, at.

Domiciled

The country in which the applicant normally lives. Student Finance England covers those students domiciled in England and European Union Students studying in England. Student Finance Wales covers those students domiciled in Wales and European Union Students studying in Wales. Student Finance Northern Ireland covers those students domiciled in Northern Ireland and European Union Students studying in Northern Ireland.

Estimated eligible population

The numbers of students that are eligible to apply for student finance including those who do not apply.

For England, figures for the estimated eligible population are supplied by the Department for Business Innovation and Skills (BIS). BIS use data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency and other sources with the closest approximation of eligibility criteria available from those sources. Estimates are produced with a consistent method each year.

For Wales figures for the estimated eligible population are supplied by the Welsh Government (WG). WG use data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency and other sources with the closest approximation of eligibility criteria available from those sources. Estimates are produced with a consistent method each year.

For Northern Ireland figures for the estimated eligible population are supplied by the Department for Employment and Learning (Northern Ireland) (DEL(NI)).

Entry cohort

Grouping of applicants according to the student finance regulations against which the applicant was assessed for support. Student finance applicants are covered by transitional protection, which means they continue to be assessed against the regulations in place for their first year of study. Students changing courses, or starting a new period of study no longer receive transitional protection and will be assessed under the arrangements in place for their latest year of study.

Final figures

The final position refers to statistics being in a steady state. Final figures are not expected to change significantly and should represent the final outcome.

Full year maintenance loan

The amount of maintenance loan available to students varies between those studying in their final year and those studying in an earlier year of their course. Students in their final year will be entitled to a reduced amount to reflect the reduced length of time in attendance at their university over which maintenance support is required.

Level of support

Identifies if the applicant was awarded the full level of means tested grant, partial level or no grant.

Maintenance loan rate

Applicants are entitled to a different amount of maintenance loans depending on their term-time residence. Rates differ for applicants living at home, in London or elsewhere (excluding London).

Residual income

For England and Wales this is the income associated with the household where the applicant normally resides. It comprises of the taxable earned and unearned incomes of the applicant or those of the applicants minus any allowable deductions. For Northern Ireland this defined as the income from the household from which the applicant normally resides. This income determines how much means tested support the applicant is entitled to. Residual income comprises of the taxable earned and unearned income of the applicant and/or the taxable earned and unearned income of the applicant's sponsors minus any allowable deductions.

Student

For England an applicant for financial support becomes a student once the Student Loans Company has received confirmation that the person is attending a course in a Higher Education Institution (HEI). Not all applicants take up a place in a HEI. For Wales and Northern Ireland this is defined as those student finance applicants for whom an attendance confirmation has been received from the university which indicates that the applicant is or has taken a place at university. This is an important distinction as not all those making student finance applicants go on to take a place at university.

Student support arrangement

This is the arrangement available at the time of the application for support. It includes the range of support available, the eligibility rules and the income thresholds (which are in place for a given academic year).

Take up rate

The rate of which the eligible population chooses to apply for a maintenance loan.

Targeted support

These are grants and allowances, aimed to provide additional financial support, to students meeting specific circumstances. Target support includes Travel Grant, Parental Learning Allowance, Childcare Grant and Adult Dependants Grant.

J. International comparisons data

The Department for Education (DfE)1 supplies summary statistics, on behalf of the UK, to a joint questionnaire compiled by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Statistical Office of the European Communities (EUROSTAT) and the Statistical Office of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO-UIS). Table 22 in this product has been compiled using data supplied by various countries to the international bodies and in particular, data derived from the OECD's own annual publication, 'Education at a Glance'. There are inevitably a number of problems of comparability and interpretation in using this table, and readers are advised to read the footnotes carefully.

The main aspects to be borne in mind are:

• The underlying educational systems need to be understood, as far as possible, in interpreting these comparisons. As an aid to understanding the differences between the various countries, up to date information about the different educational systems in the European Union is available from, EURYDICE at NFER, The Mere, Upton Park, Slough, Berkshire, SL1 2DQ (website: www.nfer.ac.uk/eurydice. Or see the European EURYDICE Unit website: www.eurydice.org).

• Within HE three sub-divisions of tertiary education are recognised internationally. These are known as ISCED levels 5A, 5B and 6 (the International Standard Classification of Education). Level 5A courses are largely theoretically based and designed to provide entry to advanced research programmes and professions with high skill requirements. They have a minimum of three years full-time equivalent duration. These programmes are not exclusively offered at universities; conversely, not all university programmes fulfil the criteria to be classified as tertiary-type 5A. In the UK, first and higher degree qualifications (excluding PhDs) are included at this level. Level 5B qualifications are more practically-oriented and occupationally specific than programmes at ISCED 5A. These have a minimum of two years' full-time equivalent duration and are focused on equipping students for direct entry into the labour market, although some theoretical foundations may be covered in these programmes. In the UK these comprise 'sub degree' qualifications such as the Diploma of Higher Education (DipHE), BTEC Higher National Diploma/Certificate (HND/HNC), nursing, and other professional qualifications. Level 6 is reserved for advanced research qualifications - in the UK, the PhD is included at this level.

• Although renewed efforts have been made to standardise education classifications, through a revised ISCED (1997), the definition of HE may be interpreted slightly differently by different countries. In some countries the masters degree is the first degree in higher education, and in others the higher education system is oriented towards vocationally-based level 5B courses that are considered to be of an equal standing to level 5A courses.

• (ISCED97 has been under review and a revised version, known as ISCED11, was formally adopted by the UNESCO General Council meeting in November 2011 for implementation in 2013/14, making its first appearance in published international data from 2015 onwards. This timescale allows countries sufficient time to adapt existing administrative and survey data collections, and recognises the time-lag between the collection, processing, checking, reporting and publication of this data).

• The range of public and private provision and the definition of the public/private sectors will vary from country to country.

• Participation rates can be influenced by a number of factors including varying course lengths and drop-out rates.

• Graduation rates from Tertiary-type A and Tertiary-type B programmes are calculated on a 'gross' basis, i.e. by dividing an unduplicated count of graduates (taken from the UOE GRAD questionnaire) by the population at the 'typical' age of graduation.

• In the case of Tertiary-type A (i.e. degree) courses, OECD took the average of the UK 21, 22, 23 and 24 year old population to be the population at the 'typical age of graduation'.

• Graduation rates from advanced research (i.e. PhD) programmes continued to be calculated on a 'net' basis, i.e. the sum over all 'x' of PhD graduates aged 'x' divided by population aged 'x'. Both these methods give a measure of the 'lifetime chance' of graduating from tertiary education, based on current patterns.

• Regarding entry rate figures, although OECD's method is based on the same principle as the Department's Initial Entry Rate (IER) (e.g. it uses HESA's 'entry code' field to distinguish between first year students entering HE for the first time and students re-entering HE), OECD's figures should not be compared to the IER, and this indicator should not be used to measure how other countries fare against the UK's '50%' HE participation target. One difference is that all HE students are included in the OECD count, whereas the IER excludes students on very short courses and overseas students. The main difference, though, is that the IER calculations use sophisticated methods to exclude double-counting of entrants, and the IER only refers to England, rather than the UK.

K. The Labour Force Survey and Annual Population Survey data

This section is included to give a broad indication of the output of the United Kingdom (UK) higher education (HE) system - that which can be gained by looking at the proportion of the adult population of the UK who hold HE qualifications. Time series comparisons show the impact that the HE experience is having on the general population over time.

The two statistics show the percentage of the UK population with HE qualifications, by age and gender, over time, and the percentage of the UK population with postgraduate qualifications, by age and gender, also over time.

These statistics are based on external data sources - the Labour Force Survey, the Local Area Database, the Annual Local Area Labour Force Survey and, from 2004, the Annual Population Survey. These are run by The Office for National Statistics and cover the whole of the UK.

The sample is equivalent to approximately a half percent of the adult population of the UK. The sampling strategy is such that the surveys have a rotating panel of respondents. Households are asked to remain in the survey for 4 or 5 interviews or 'waves'. Thus each dataset contains respondents being interviewed for the first time along with others being interviewed for the second, third, and fourth or final time. A respondent can provide information for other household members who may not be present to be interviewed; these are called 'proxy interviews'. Around one third of data is collected through proxy interviews. It is possible that data are less accurate than they would be if each adult answered the survey individually.

For most of the UK, households are chosen from a postcode address file. The majority of first interviews are carried out face to face and 70% of recall interviews are by telephone. However, due to the sparse population north of the Caledonian Canal in Scotland, households are chosen from the published telephone directory and interviews are conducted by telephone primarily to reduce costs. The questions asked by telephone interviewers are the same as those which are asked face to face, and interviewers are extensively trained and monitored in order to ensure the data they record is accurate.

The survey covers people of all ages, including the employed, inactive and unemployed. Qualification information is asked of those of working age and those above working age who are in employment. Students living in halls of residence are included in the household survey of the parental address.

Notes on coverage

It should be noted that there is a certain discontinuity in following through those who have had the HE experience because the classification of HE qualifications and postgraduate qualifications used for the Labour Force Survey is different from that used by HESA.

It should also be noted that in looking at the impact of HE on the general population, some of the UK population will have gained their qualifications outside the UK, or at private higher education institutions (HEIs), or further education colleges in the UK, and/or on a part-time basis. Others will have gained HE qualifications at publicly-funded HEIs in the UK, but then left the UK.

There have also been significant changes in how HE data has been collected by ONS over the time period displayed. Households within the Main Labour Force Survey (LFS) are asked to take part for five interviews or 'waves', each being three months apart. Main LFS datasets are published quarterly and cover a period of three months. Thus each quarter some households leave and others join the survey. Between 1996 and 1999 the Main LFS data was used to construct an annual dataset; this data source is known as the Local Area Database (LADB). To construct this dataset wave 1 and wave 5 cases were combined for a 12 month period; this ensures that respondents only appear once in the dataset. This was developed into the Annual Local Area Labour Force Survey (ALALFS), which runs from 2000 to 2003. This again takes wave 1 and wave 5 cases of the Main LFS but now adds a 'boost' sample. Initially the 'boost' was just for England but later a 'boost' was also introduced for Wales and Scotland. An additional boost was added to England in 2004 when the dataset became known as the Annual Population Survey (APS), the additional boost was however dropped in 2006, so the APS, from 2006 to the present, has the same structure as the ALALFS. The 'boost' households are asked to take part for four interviews or 'waves', each being 12 months apart; these respondents are asked a subset of the LFS questions. Currently a quarterly Main LFS dataset contains around 120,000 individuals and an APS dataset contains around 340,000 individuals. This analysis uses the annual datasets described above; the Labour Force Survey for 2000, and the Annual Population Survey for 2005 and 2010.

1 The International Evidence team within the DfE Strategy Performance Analysis Group supplies annual returns to the named international organisations on behalf of both DfE and Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) in England and the relevant bodies within the other UK member countries.

© Higher Education Statistics Agency Limited 2013