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JACS 3.0: Detailed (four digit) subject codes

JACS 3.0 was introduced in 2012/13.

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A - Medicine and Dentistry

A100

Pre-clinical medicine

Vocational science of preventing, diagnosing, alleviating or curing disease in homo sapiens. Includes such areas as Anatomy, Physiology, Pharmacy and Nutrition which can be specialisms in their own right.

A200

Pre-clinical dentistry

Vocational science concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of damage, disease and disorder to the teeth and gums of homo sapiens.

A300

Clinical medicine

The observation, diagnosis and treatment of an illness or disease through direct interaction with human patients.

A400

Clinical dentistry

The observation, diagnosis and treatment of disease or damage to teeth and gums through direct interaction with human patients.

A900

Others in medicine & dentistry

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Medicine and Dentistry categories. To be used sparingly.

A990

Medicine & dentistry not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Others in Medicine and Dentistry categories. To be used sparingly.

B - Subjects Allied to Medicine

B100

Anatomy, physiology & pathology

The study of the human body and how it is affected by disease. Includes study at cellular and molecular levels.

B110

Anatomy

The scientific study of the structure and function of the human body, including tissues, organs and systems.

B120

Physiology

The study of the function and behaviour of the human body, including subjects such as respiration, circulation, digestion, excretion, reproduction and neuroscience.

B121

Clinical physiology

The study of the major physiology systems in humans, measurement techniques in their normal and abnormal function, and their use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

B130

Pathology

The study of the nature, causes and development of human diseases, and the mechanisms of disease infestation and transfer.

B131

Cellular pathology

The study of the effects and nature of diseases in cellular structures.

B132

Pathobiology

The study of the biological nature of diseases.

B140

Neuroscience

The study of the anatomy, physiology, biophysics, biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology and behaviour of human nerve cells and nervous systems.

B160

Physiotherapy

The study of the planning and execution of treatment programmes to prevent or remedy physical dysfunction, relieve pain and prevent further disability.

B170

Podiatry

The study of the diagnosis and management of pathologies of the lower limb and foot.

B190

Anatomy, physiology & pathology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology categories. To be used sparingly.

B200

Pharmacology, toxicology & pharmacy

The study of the therapeutic and toxic effects of drugs on human tissues and systems.

B210

Pharmacology

The study of the nature, source, identification and characteristics of poisons, toxic substances, and exogenous chemical agents and their effects on human tissues and systems.

B220

Toxicology

The study of the professional practice of pharmacy. Includes instruction in principles of medicinal chemistry, drug behaviour, and mixing, preparing and dispensing of prescription medications.

B230

Pharmacy

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy categories. To be used sparingly.

B290

Pharmacology, toxicology & pharmacy not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy categories. To be used sparingly.

B300

Complementary medicines, therapies & well-being

The study of medicines and therapies not covered within clinical medicines to prevent and alleviate illness and disease as well as enhance health and well-being.

B310

Osteopathy

The treatment of disease through the manipulation of bones.

B320

Chiropractic

The diagnosis and manipulative treatment of mechanical disorders of the joints.

B340

Alternative medicine & therapies

The study of the methods of diagnosis and treatment considered outside the scope of mainstream medicine in the UK.

B341

Chinese

The study of the range of medical techniques with roots in China, such as moxibustion, massage, cupping, gwa sha, breath work (Qi Gong) and exercise (Tai Chi).

B342

Herbalism

The use of herbs in the treatment of illness.

B343

Acupuncture

The method of treating various conditions by pricking the skin or tissues with needles.

B344

Aromatherapy

The use of plant extracts and essential oils in massage.

B345

Hypnotherapy

The treatment of disease by hypnosis.

B346

Reflexology

A system of massage through reflex points on the feet, hands and head used to relieve tension and treat illness.

B350

Hair & beauty science

The study of services and treatments carried out in the hair, beauty and nail sectors and the sciences related to them.

B351

Hair services

The study of hairdressing services, skills and knowledge required to meet clients' needs including hair and scalp disease and disorders.

B352

Beauty therapies

The study of therapies to enhance well-being, appearance, relaxation or uplift to meet clients' needs. Includes treatments such as injectibles and laser/light therapies.

B353

Make-up

The study of treatments carried out to enhance the appearance of individuals. This can include the application of camouflage make-up.

B360

Spa & water-based therapies

The study of water-based therapies, treatments and services to enhance the face, body, health and well-being.

B390

Complementary medicines, therapies & well-being not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects not elsewhere classified. To be used sparingly.

B400

Nutrition

The study of the process of assimilating nutrient materials into animal or plant tissue. Designed to enhance health and the quality of life of those treated.

B410

Dietetics

The study of nutritional services, menu planning and diet formulation for individuals, families and institutions.

B490

Nutrition not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Dietetics categories. To be used sparingly.

B500

Ophthalmics

The study of the eye, disruption to sight and diseases of the eye. Also includes treatment of eye disorders.

B510

Optometry

The study of the principles and techniques for examining, diagnosing and treating conditions of the human visual system.

B520

Orthoptics

The study of principles and techniques for the correction of vision defects in humans using therapeutic exercises.

B590

Ophthalmics not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Ophthalmic categories. To be used sparingly.

B600

Aural & oral sciences

The study of speech and hearing and problems that can occur with them. Includes the treatment of hearing defects and speech impediments.

B610

Audiology

The study of the anatomy and physiology of the human hearing organs, their function and malfunction, and related environmental and behavioural topics.

B620

Speech science

The study of the anatomy and physiology of the human speech organs, their function and malfunction, and related environmental and behavioural topics.

B630

Language pathology

The study of the principles and techniques of therapies for persons with physical or behavioural disorders that affect speaking or comprehension.

B690

Aural & oral sciences not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Aural and Oral Science categories. To be used sparingly.

B700

Nursing

The study of principles and techniques for assessing, managing, treating and monitoring patients.

B701

Palliative care nursing

The study of principles and techniques for assessing, managing, treating and monitoring the provision of palliative care for individuals with life-limiting conditions.

B702

Clinical practice nursing

The study of the principles and techniques for assessing, managing, treating and monitoring in the following care specialisms: diabetes, cancer, cardiac, renal, respiratory disease or disorders or sexual health.

B710

Community nursing

The study of principles and techniques for assessing, managing, treating and monitoring the health care needs of patients and families outside of a hospital environment.

B712

Health visiting

The study of the promotion of health and health education specialising in working with families with children under 5 years old and older people.

B713

School nursing

The study of principles and techniques for the provision of nursing care within a school setting or to children and young people of school age.

B714

Practice nursing

The study of the principles and techniques for the assessing, screening, treating, care and education of patients within general practitioner practices.

B720

Midwifery

The study of the principles and techniques to allow midwives to deliver babies and treat mothers in the pre-natal, delivery and post-delivery periods.

B730

Children's nursing

The study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to support and provide care for children and their families, from infancy to adolescence.

B731

Neonatal care

The study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to support and provide care for new-born babies who are premature or who are born sick, and their families.

B740

Adult nursing

The study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to assess, manage, treat and monitor the provision of care of adults in a variety of settings.

B741

Older people nursing

The study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to assess, manage, treat and monitor the provision of care for older adults.

B750

Dental nursing

The study of principles and techniques in providing assistance to dentists undertaking procedures and care to persons undergoing such procedures.

B760

Mental health nursing

The study of the principles and therapeutic interventions that allow nurses to provide care for people with mental health needs.

B761

Learning disability nursing

The study of the principles and techniques to provide support for children and adults with learning difficulties.

B770

Medical nursing

The study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to assess, manage, treat and monitor the provision of care for patients undergoing investigations that do not require surgical intervention.

B771

Critical care nursing

The study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to assess, manage, treat and monitor the provision of care to critically ill patients.

B772

Surgical nursing

The study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to assess, manage, treat and monitor the provision of care for patients undergoing surgical intervention.

B773

Emergency nursing

The study of the principles and techniques to allow nurses to assess, manage, treat and monitor the provision of care for patients at first contact in the Emergency department.

B790

Nursing not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Nursing categories. To be used sparingly.

B800

Medical technology

The study of the use and development of medical equipment and its potential, including that used in radiography. Also involves understanding the effects of the various forms of radiation used to display and treat damage or illness.

B810

Cardiography

The study of techniques aimed at diagnosing disorders of the human cardiovascular system.

B820

Radiology

The study of the principles and techniques in the use of radiation to provide diagnostic information and therapy in medicine.

B821

Radiography, diagnostic

The study of the principles and techniques in the use of radiation to provide medical diagnostic information.

B822

Radiography, therapeutic

The study of the treatment of human diseases by means of controlled exposure to forms of radiation.

B830

Biomechanics & prosthetics (non-clinical)

The study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement and structure of the human body.

B840

Dental technology

The study of the design and fabrication of dental prosthetics and restorative appliances.

B850

Mortuary technology

The study of the techniques/processes and equipment relating to the storage of deceased human beings.

B890

Medical technology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Medical Technology categories. To be used sparingly.

B900

Others in subjects allied to medicine

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Subjects Allied to Medicine categories. To be used sparingly.

B910

Environmental health

The study of the monitoring and evaluation of health hazards and the planning and management of public health programmes.

B920

Occupational health

The monitoring and evaluation of health standards related to industrial and commercial workplaces and locations.

B930

Occupational therapy

The study of therapeutic regimes to assist recovery from mental or physical ailments/injury.

B940

Counselling

The study of the provision of support services aimed at helping people to maintain a healthy and positive mental disposition in addressing problems.

B950

Paramedical science

The study of the principles and techniques to allow provision of on-site care for persons with acute illnesses or injuries.

B960

Physician assistant studies

The study of the principles and techniques required to take medical histories, perform examinations, diagnose illnesses, and analyse test results under direct supervision of a doctor.

B990

Subjects allied to medicine not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Subjects Allied to Medicine categories. To be used sparingly.

C - Biological Sciences

C100

Biology

A broadly based scientific study of living organisms, both animal and vegetable. Includes their structure, functions, evolution, distribution and interrelationships.

C110

Applied biology

Topics in Biology of commercial or social importance.

C111

Parasitology

The study of the transmission and control of parasitic diseases and their vectors.

C120

Behavioural biology

The study of the behavioural strategies used by organisms in their natural environment to maximise fitness. Includes foraging, social and reproductive (including parental care, sexual selection and mate choice) behaviour, behavioural responses to predators, communication, migration and homing.

C130

Cell biology

Concerned with the organisation of the cell, cell membrane and cell communication.

C131

Applied cell biology

Topics in Cell Biology of commercial or social importance.

C140

Developmental/Reproductive biology

The study of the development and reproduction of multi-cellular organisms and the differentiation of cells, tissues and organs.

C141

Developmental biology

The study of the development of multi-cellular organisms.

C142

Reproductive biology

The study of the reproduction of multi-cellular organisms.

C150

Environmental biology

Relates animals and plants to their terrestrial and marine habitats.

C160

Marine/Freshwater biology

The study of aquatic biology.

C161

Marine biology

The study of saltwater and oceanic biology.

C162

Freshwater biology

The study of freshwater and estuarine biology.

C170

Population biology

The study of organism numbers and population dynamics.

C180

Ecology

The study of organisms in their environment, their interactions and history.

C181

Biodiversity

Concentrates on the design and development of different species and their interrelationships.

C182

Evolution

The study of organisms' adaptation to their environment and the mechanisms of heredity and change.

C183

Community ecology

The study of the structure, composition and dynamics of ecological assemblages. Includes the relationship between species assemblages and their environments, trophic structure, succession, stability, biodiversity, coexistence and competitive exclusion, spatial structure and relative abundance of component species.

C184

Conservation ecology

The study of the science underpinning the restoration and conservation of species and communities and their natural habitat.

C185

Ecosystem ecology & land use

The study of large-scale ecology including catchment and regional studies, landscape ecology and interactions between ecology and land use patterns.

C186

Population ecology

The study of the understanding of population dynamics, including trophic interactions, demography of populations, extinction processes, spatial processes and metapopulation dynamics.

C187

Ecotoxicology

The study of the branch of toxicology concerned with toxic effects caused by natural or synthetic pollutants, to the constituents of ecosystems, (animal (including human), vegetable and microbial) in an integral context. Includes diagnostics, tolerance and adaptation in relation to natural and anthropogenic toxic substances.

C190

Biology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Biology categories. To be used sparingly.

C191

Biometry

Concerned with the quantitative techniques and measurement in the biological Sciences.

C200

Botany

The study of plants including their classification, structure, physiology, ecology and economic importance. Includes the importance of plants for a balanced ecosystem including the process of energy fixation and conversion in to the biosphere (and thus with food and fuel). May also be called Plant Science.

C210

Applied botany

Topics in Botany of commercial or social importance.

C220

Mycology

The study of fungi, symbiotic relationships and their role in decay.

C230

Plant biotechnology

Involves the molecular and microbial manipulation of plants.

C240

Plant cell science

Concerned with the cellular organisation and function in plants.

C250

Plant pathology

Concerned with the diseases of plants and their treatments.

C260

Plant physiology

The study of the area of botany concerned with the function or physiology of plants. This includes processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, plant hormone functions, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, environmental stress physiology, seed germination, dormancy and stomata function and transpiration.

C270

Developmental & reproductive plant biology

The study of plant growth related to reproduction and development.

C280

Systematic botany

The study of morphological, numerical and molecular methods of identifying and classifying living and fossil plants. Includes the reconstruction of phylogenies.

C290

Botany not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Botany categories. To be used sparingly.

C300

Zoology

The scientific study of all aspects of animal biology: their reproduction, development, physiology, behaviour, mechanics of locomotion, diseases and interactions with the environment.

C310

Applied zoology

Zoological topics of commercial or social importance, e.g. animal disease and eradication.

C320

Cell zoology

Concerned with the cellular organisation and function in animals.

C330

Developmental & reproductive zoology

The study of the reproduction and development of animals, including embryos, fertilisation, foetal growth and maturation, ovarian function, fertility and the differentiation of cells, tissues and organs.

C340

Entomology

The study of insects, including their role as pests.

C350

Marine zoology

The biological study of animals in seawater environments.

C360

Pest science

Concerned with vertebrate and invertebrate pests, their roles as disease vectors and agents of damage, and their control.

C380

Systematic zoology

The study of morphological, numerical and molecular methods of identifying and classifying living and fossil animals, including reconstruction of phylogenies.

C390

Zoology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Zoology categories. To be used sparingly.

C400

Genetics

The scientific study of origin, heredity and variation in organisms; includes the inheritance of biological information.

C410

Applied genetics

Topics in genetics of commercial or social importance, e.g. in animal and plant breeding, but not exclusively involving Genetic Engineering, which is coded as C460.

C420

Human genetics

The study of the genetics of the human species, including chromosome theory and the mechanism of gene action.

C430

Medical & veterinary genetics

The investigation of genetic anomalies' and their treatment.

C431

Medical genetics

The investigation of genetic abnormalities and their treatment in humans.

C432

Veterinary genetics

The investigation of genetic abnormalities and their treatment in animals.

C440

Molecular genetics

The study of genetic factors and processes at molecular level.

C441

Transcriptomics

The study of transcriptomics; the branch of chemistry which deals with the study of messenger RNA molecules produced in one or a population of cell types.

C450

Genomics

The branch of genetics that studies organisms in terms of their genomes (their full DNA sequences).

C451

Functional genomics

The study of functional genomics; the branch of molecular biology that uses data produced by genomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects) to describe gene (and protein) functions and interactions. Functional genomics focuses on the dynamic aspects such as gene transcription, translation, and protein-protein interactions.

C452

Genome organisation

The study of adult stem cells, chromosome duplication, chromosome structure, comparative mapping, gene mapping, genome rearrangements, ploidy, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), genome evolution and telomeres.

C460

Genetic engineering

The use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products.

C470

Population genetics & evolution

The study of speciation and population genetics, gene flow/population structure, hybrid zones, island populations, genetic drift and conservation genetics. This includes adaptation and the evolution of life histories.

C490

Genetics not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do fit into other Genetics categories. To be used sparingly.

C500

Microbiology

The scientific study of micro-organisms encompassing major components of genetics and molecular biology. Includes bacteriology, virology, cell structure and function, and may include some immunology.

C510

Applied microbiology

The study of topics in microbiology of commercial, environmental or social importance. Includes interactions between the environment and microbial systems, bioremediation and microbial diversity.

C520

Medical & veterinary microbiology

The study of the interactions between micro-organisms and their hosts.

C521

Medical microbiology

The study of the interactions between micro-organism and their human hosts.

C522

Veterinary microbiology

The study of the interactions between micro-organisms and their animal hosts.

C530

Bacteriology

The study of bacteria and bacterial diseases.

C540

Virology

The study of viruses and viral diseases.

C550

Immunology

The study of the immune system as a defence mechanism against infection.

C570

Serology

The study of sera and blood-related products.

C590

Microbiology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Microbiology categories.  To be used sparingly.

C600

Sport & exercise science

The applied scientific study of the anatomy, physiology, biomechanics and psychology of the human body with a view to optimising performance in sporting and physical activities. Includes non-teacher training physical education.

C610

Sport coaching

The study of the delivery (teaching, instructing and coaching) of enhanced sport performance and the critical analysis of the integration of the variables involved.

C620

Sport development

The monitoring, analysis, diagnosis and prescription of actions to enhance the component elements of sport.

C630

Sport conditioning, rehabilitation & therapy

The applied scientific study of anatomy, biomechanics, physiology and psychology within the context of human body conditioning, sport-related injuries and rehabilitation.

C640

Sport studies

The study of the nature and provision of sport through analysis of its socio-cultural and health impacts.

C650

Sport technology

The study of the impact of technology and ergonomics to advance sport performance through the study of biomechanics, physiology, psychology and materials technology.

C690

Sport & exercise science not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other sport and exercise categories. To be used sparingly.

C700

Molecular biology, biophysics & biochemistry

The scientific study of the chemical compounds and reactions occurring in the cells of living organisms including the molecular and biochemical analysis of life processes. Involves aspects of cellular organisation processes. and specialisation and how the structure and function of DNA, RNA proteins, enzymes and membranes determine biological.

C710

Applied molecular biology, biophysics & biochemistry

Topics in molecular biology, biophysics and biochemistry of commercial or social importance.

C720

Biological chemistry

The study of the molecules and compounds that make up cells and organisms; how they are formed and how they interact. Includes the study of Molecular Biology.

C730

Metabolic biochemistry

Covers the biochemical aspects of metabolic processes.

C740

Medical & veterinary biochemistry

The study of the molecular basis of health and illness.

C741

Medical biochemistry

Covers the biochemical aspects of metabolic processes in humans.

C742

Veterinary biochemistry

Covers the biochemical aspects of metabolic processes in animals.

C750

Plant biochemistry

Concerned with cellular processes in plants including the understanding of the expression of genetic information.

C760

Biomolecular science

The study of the molecular processes in the life sciences.

C770

Biophysical science

The use of the methods of physical science in the biological sciences.

C790

Molecular biology, biophysics & biochemistry not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Molecular Biology, Biophysics and Biochemistry categories. To be used sparingly.

C800

Psychology

The study of behavioural and mental processes. May include study of the brain, the senses, and the biological and physiological bases of behaviour.

C810

Applied psychology

The application of psychological evidence and theories to real world situations.

C811

Occupational psychology

The psychology of selection, motivation and performance in the workplace.

C812

Educational psychology

The psychology of learning and teaching in educational settings.

C813

Sport psychology

The psychology of sport.

C814

Organisational psychology

The psychology of human behaviour in organisational settings.

C815

Business psychology

The applications of psychology to business contexts.

C816

Forensic psychology

The psychological aspects of crime and criminal behaviour.

C820

Developmental psychology

The study of the development of psychological processes across the life cycle.

C821

Child psychology

The study of the development of psychological processes in childhood.

C822

The psychology of ageing

Psychological aspects of the ageing process in adults.

C830

Methodological & conceptual issues in psychology

Investigation into fundamental psychological processes.

C831

Research methods in psychology

The study of the techniques, methodology and statistical procedures used in psychology.

C832

Quantitative psychology

The use of measurement, quantitative and statistical techniques in psychological testing.

C833

Qualitative psychology

The use and analysis of qualitative techniques in psychology.

C834

History of psychology

The historical development of methodology and theory in psychology.

C835

Philosophy of psychology

Philosophical and conceptual issues underlying psychology.

C840

Psychology in health & medicine

The application of psychology to physiological and physical well-being.

C841

Health psychology

The study of the psychological factors in maintaining and recovering physical well-being.

C842

Clinical psychology

The study and treatment of psychological disorder.

C843

Counselling psychology

The study and application of psychological processes of counselling.

C844

Psychotherapy

The study and application of psychological processes of therapy.

C845

Clinical neuropsychology

The study of clinical aspects of the psychological consequences of neurological disorders.

C846

Community psychology

The applications of psychology in community contexts.

C847

Psychoanalytical studies

The application of psychodynamic approaches within psychology.

C848

Psychology of mental health

The study of psychological well-being.

C850

Cognitive & affective psychology

The study of the mechanism and processes associated with perception, learning, language, memory and the emotions.

C851

Psychological modelling

The application of psychology to the development and application of computational models of cognitive processes.

C852

Psychology of communication

The study of psychological processes in verbal and non-verbal communication.

C853

Psychology of memory & learning

The study of psychological processes of memory and learning.

C854

Psychology of perception

The study of psychological processes in perception.

C855

Psychology of higher cognitive processes

The study of thinking, reasoning, decision-making and problem solving.

C856

Experimental psychology

The experimental investigation of behavioural and mental processes.

C857

Affective psychology

Psychology of emotional behaviour.

C858

Transpersonal psychology

The study of psychological aspects of spiritual and mystic experience.

C860

Psychobiology

Biological explanations of psychological processes.

C861

Cognitive neuroscience

The study of neural mechanisms underlying cognitive processes.

C862

Affective neuroscience

The study of neural mechanisms underlying emotional behaviour.

C863

Psychopharmacology

The study of the behavioural and psychological effects of drugs.

C864

Evolutionary psychology

The study of evolutionary explanations of psychology.

C865

Animal psychology

The study of cognitive processes in animals.

C870

Personality & individual differences

The study of psychological factors in individual differences.

C871

Psychometrics

The psychological testing of personality and individual differences.

C872

Psychology of gender

The study of the influence of gender on psychological processes.

C873

Cross-cultural psychology

The study of the influence of culture on psychological processes.

C880

Social psychology

The study of behaviour and mental processes in social contexts.

C881

Social cognition

The study of the cognitive processes involved in social interactions.

C890

Psychology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Psychology categories. To be used sparingly.

C900

Others in Biological Sciences

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Biological (or Life) Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

C910

Applied biological sciences

Topics in Other Biological Sciences of commercial or social importance.

C990

Biological sciences not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Biological (or Life) Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

D - Veterinary Sciences, Agriculture and related subjects

D100

Pre-clinical veterinary medicine

Vocational science concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disease in animals.

D190

Pre-clinical veterinary medicine not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Pre-clinical Veterinary Medicine categories. To be used sparingly.

D200

Clinical veterinary medicine & dentistry

The observation, diagnosis and treatment of illness, disease or damage through direct interaction with non-human patients.

D210

Clinical veterinary medicine

The observation, diagnosis and treatment of illness, disease or damage through direct interaction with non-human patients.

D220

Clinical veterinary dentistry

The observation, diagnosis and treatment of illness, disease or damage to the teeth and gums through direct interaction with non-human patients.

D290

Clinical veterinary medicine & dentistry not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Clinical Veterinary Medicine and Dentistry categories. To be used sparingly.

D300

Animal science

The scientific study of animals, their nutrition, treatment and care. Includes the study of animals’ diseases and their cure. May include veterinary nursing. Also may include the study of drugs, their characteristics, actions and uses.

D310

Veterinary nursing

Vocational science concerning the practical care of sick, injured and/or infirm animals.

D320

Animal health

The study of animal diseases with the object of prevention or diagnosis and cure.

D321

Animal anatomy

The study of the physical structure of an animal, how each part works and is related. Studies include dissection and use of microscope slides.

D322

Animal physiology

The study of systemic function and behaviour of the animal frame, including processes such as respiration, circulation, digestion, excretion, and reproduction.

D323

Animal pathology

The study of the effect of disease and/or damage to the animal frame. Studies include dissection and use of microscope slides.

D324

Animal pharmacology

The study of drugs, their characteristics, actions, uses and effects on different animals.

D325

Animal toxicology

The study of poisons, their nature, effect on different animals and possible antidotes.

D326

Animal pharmacy

The study of the preparation and dispensing of animal-related drugs. Involves an understanding of the food-chain and its interaction with human beings.

D327

Animal nutrition

The study of the process of assimilating nutrient materials into animal tissue.

D328

Animal welfare

The study of the health, contentment and well being of animals, how such contentment should be maintained and the laws concerning animal housing and provision.

D330

Veterinary public health

The study of the prevention of the spread of disease from animals to man.

D340

Overseas veterinary development

The study of international veterinary practice and its development in specialist areas.

D390

Animal sciences not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Animal Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

D400

Agriculture

The study of farming and husbandry, conservation, rural business studies and related applied sciences. Includes study and practical experience of cultivating land and rearing crops and livestock. May also include some aspects of rural recreation.

D410

Arable & fruit farming

The study of the most efficient way to grow crops on a large scale, including those borne on trees, for food.

D411

Agricultural pests & diseases

The study of diseases in crops and the animals and insects which attack them, with the object of preventing such disease or attack.

D412

Crop physiology

The study of crop structure and how it is affected by disease. Studies include dissection and use of microscope slides. Also includes study at cellular level.

D413

Crop nutrition

The study of the process of assimilating nutrient materials into crop tissue with the aim of understanding and providing the correct nutrient balance.

D414

Crop protection

The particular study of the development of immunities in crops. Also includes the study of artificial barriers, preventatives or exterminators for the animals/insects which attack crops.

D415

Crop production

The study of growing and harvesting crops and the relationship of arable production to its environment and humans.

D416

Glasshouse culture

The study of native and non-native plant propagation and growth in greenhouse conditions, including crops and plants grown for their appearance or other properties.

D417

Amenity horticulture

The study of plants grown for their appearance for use in municipal and other large area planting schemes, gardens, parks and landscapes.

D418

Exotic plants & crops

The study of the most efficient way to plant, sow and harvest non-native crops.

D420

Livestock

The study of the most efficient way to keep animals for agricultural use rather than as pets.

D421

Livestock husbandry

The study of animals and their relationship with their environment and people in order to enable successful farming.

D422

Equine studies

The particular study of horses, their health, livery and use as farm, domestic and recreational animals.

D423

Poultry keeping

The study of egg and fowl production and the relationship of poultry to its environment and people.

D424

Game keeping

The study of the breeding, maintenance and protection of wild animals preserved specifically for hunting purposes.

D425

Exotic livestock

The study of the most efficient way to keep, rear and breed animals not native to Britain.

D430

Fish farming

The study of the most efficient way to use an area of water to rear fish for commercial sale.

D431

Fish husbandry

The study of fish in their environment for fishing or fish farming.

D432

Freshwater fish

The study of fish generic to unsalted ponds, streams, rivers and lakes, their habits, breeding patterns and the unique effects of their environment.

D433

Saltwater fish

The study of fish generic to seas, oceans and salted estuaries, their habits, breeding patterns and the unique effects of their environment.

D434

Ornamental fish

The study of fish kept for recreational purposes, their habits and breeding patterns.

D435

Aquaculture

The study of the cultivation of water resources, both plant and animal, for human consumption or use.

D440

Rural estate management

The study of the administration of large landed properties as or on behalf of their owner. Includes elements of business studies, personnel management, buildings management.

D441

Farm management

The study of the most efficient way to keep livestock and grow and harvest crops and fruit. Includes home farm management.

D442

Game keeping management

The study of the habitat and management of land set aside for hunting purposes.

D443

Water resource management

The study of fresh and salt water, its use commercially, domestically and recreationally. Includes the conservation of water. Also includes the study of drought, flood and the water cycle.

D444

Land management for recreation

The study of land used for informal recreation. Includes study of erosion and damage to habitat from over or inappropriate use, and the techniques to prevent, cure and minimise such damage.

D445

Biological heritage site management

The scientific study of the conservation of land which has or contains something of rarity value; Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and the species found there.

D446

Wilderness management

The study of the conservation of wild, uninhabited and uncultivated land for aesthetic, recreational or scientific purposes.

D447

Environmental conservation

The study of the protection and careful management of natural resources and the environment.

D448

Sustainable agricultural & landscape development

The study of agricultural and other related landscape uses with particular emphasis on sustainable and environmentally sensitive practices.

D450

International agriculture

The study of the science or occupation of cultivating land and rearing crops in various parts of the world.

D460

Organic farming

The study of agricultural processes conducted without the use of artificial chemicals in the form of fertilisers or pesticides.

D461

Organic arable & fruit farming

The study of the most efficient way to grow crops on a large scale, including those borne on trees, for food, without the use of artificial chemicals or fertilisers.

D462

Organic livestock

The study of the most efficient way to keep animals for agricultural use rather than as pets without the use of artificial chemicals or feed.

D463

Organic fish farming

The study of the most efficient way to use an area of water to rear fish for commercial sale, without the use of artificial chemicals.

D470

Agricultural technology

The study of practical or mechanical sciences connected with agriculture as they apply to increased efficiency, economy and crop production.

D471

Agricultural machinery

The study of the use and maintenance of agricultural machinery. Includes the study of tractors, hedge clippers, milking machines etc.

D472

Agricultural irrigation & drainage

The study of the control of water by means of artificial canals and ditches, mechanical pumps, weather stations etc.

D490

Agriculture not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Agriculture categories. To be used sparingly.

D500

Forestry & arboriculture

The study of planting and caring for trees and the management of woods and forests for conservation purposes, commercial exploitation and recreational use.

D510

Trees & shrubs

The study of the most efficient way to grow hardwood and softwood trees for harvesting.

D511

Forestry pests & diseases

The study of diseases in commercially-grown hardwood and softwood trees and the animals and insects which attack them, with the object of preventing such disease or attack.

D512

Tree physiology

The study of hardwood and softwood tree structure and how it is affected by disease. Studies include dissection and use of microscope slides. Also includes study at cellular level.

D513

Tree nutrition

The study of the process of assimilating nutrient materials into tree tissue with the aim of understanding and providing the correct balance.

D514

Tree protection

The particular study of the development of immunities in trees. Also includes the study of artificial barriers, preventative measures or exterminators for the animals/insects which attack them.

D515

Tree production

The study of growing and harvesting trees and the relationship of such tree production to its environment.

D516

Timber production

The study of hardwood and softwood timber products. May include the different uses of wood products. May also include the suitability of certain trees for certain uses.

D517

Community forestry

The study of forestry used for recreation. Includes study of formal and informal recreational uses, erosion and damage to habitat from over or inappropriate use, and the techniques to prevent, cure and minimise such damage.

D520

International forestry

The study of the science or occupation of cultivating trees as a crop in various parts of the world.

D530

Organic forestry

The study of forestry processes conducted without the use of artificial chemicals in the form of fertilisers or pesticides.

D540

Forestry technology

The study of practical or mechanical sciences connected with forestry as they apply to increased efficiency, economy and crop production.

D541

Forestry irrigation & drainage

The study of the control of water and prevention of erosion by means of good planting, mechanical pumps etc.

D590

Forestry not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Forestry categories. To be used sparingly.

D600

Food & beverage studies

The study of the properties and behaviour of food from the point of origin on the farm (or elsewhere), through different stages of storage, transportation, preservation or other transformations, including domestic or restaurant food preparation procedures, to its use by the consumer.

D610

Food science

The study of the properties and behaviour of food. Includes the application of physical, chemical and biological sciences to food systems.

D611

Meat science

The study of the properties of meat. Includes the application of food sciences to meat-inclusive food systems.

D612

Cereal science

The study of the properties of cereal and grains. Includes the application of food sciences to cereal-inclusive food systems.

D613

Vegetable science

The study of the properties of vegetables. Includes the application of food sciences to vegetable-inclusive food systems.

D614

Fruit science

The study of the properties of fruit. Includes the application of food sciences to fruit-inclusive food systems.

D620

Food hygiene

The study of the maintenance and promotion of health through the clean and sanitary handling of food.

D630

Food & beverage production

The study of the process of supplying food and drink. Includes study of production techniques and the amount and rate at which foodstuffs are produced.

D631

Food & beverage manufacture

The study of the development of artificial foodstuffs. Includes the substitution of one type of food for another.

D632

Food & beverage processing

The study of the preservation and processing of foodstuffs.

D633

Food & beverage technology

The study of the production techniques for food and drink. Includes study of resources and environmental concerns.

D634

Industrial baking

The study of the production of cooked foodstuffs. Includes the application of physical, chemical and biological sciences to food preparation.

D635

Industrial brewing

The study of the production of liquid beverages. Includes the application of physical, chemical and biological sciences to drink preparation.

D640

Food & beverages for the consumer

The study of food products and their preparation to attract consumers.

D641

Food & beverage packaging

The study of packaging and packaging systems to ensure economic and hygienic handling and customer satisfaction.

D642

Food & beverage delivery

The study of transportation of food and drink to ensure economic and hygienic handling and customer satisfaction.

D690

Food & beverage studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Food and Beverage studies categories. To be used sparingly.

D700

Agricultural sciences

The specifically scientific study of aspects of agriculture, excluding wider non-laboratory-based agricultural subjects such as economics, business management and land use.

D710

Agricultural biology

A scientific study of living organisms, both animal and vegetable with particular emphasis on their use in or effect on agricultural processes.

D711

Agricultural microbiology

The scientific study of micro-organisms encompassing major components of genetics and molecular biology, with particular emphasis on their use in or effect on agricultural processes. Includes bacteriology, virology, cell structure and function and may include some immunology.

D720

Agricultural chemistry

The particular study of how individual atoms and molecules react together naturally and/or synthetically to affect agricultural processes.

D721

Agricultural biochemistry

The scientific study of the chemical compounds and reactions occurring in the cells and molecules of living organisms with particular emphasis on their use in or effect on agricultural processes. Involves aspects of cellular organisation and specialisation and how the structure and function of DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes and membranes determine biological processes.

D730

Agricultural botany

The particular study of plants cultivated as a crop. Includes their classification, structure, physiology, ecology and economic importance.

D740

Agricultural zoology

The scientific study of all agriculture-related aspects of animal biology. Includes their reproduction, development, physiology, behaviour, diseases and interactions with their environment.

D750

Soil as an agricultural medium

The study of the physical, chemical and biological processes which explain soil behaviour.

D790

Agricultural sciences not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Agricultural Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

D900

Others in veterinary sciences, agriculture & related subjects

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Veterinary Sciences, Agriculture and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

D990

Veterinary sciences, agriculture & related subjects not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Others in Veterinary Sciences, Agriculture and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

F - Physical Sciences

F100

Chemistry

The study of individual atoms and molecules and the way they react together naturally and synthetically.

F110

Applied chemistry

Topics in chemistry of commercial or social importance.

F111

Industrial chemistry

The study of chemical processes of industrial significance.

F112

Colour chemistry

The chemical science of dyes and pigments.

F120

Inorganic chemistry

The study of inorganic elements, compounds and reaction mechanisms.

F130

Structural chemistry

Determination and analysis of chemical structures.

F131

Crystallography

The study and application of techniques for determining crystal structure.

F140

Environmental chemistry

Concerned with environmental issues related to the chemical sciences.

F141

Marine chemistry

Topics in the chemical sciences concerned with understanding the marine environment.

F150

Medicinal chemistry

Aspects of Chemistry, such as drug design, of importance to medical science.

F151

Pharmaceutical chemistry

The study of drug function.

F160

Organic chemistry

The study of organic compounds and their reaction mechanisms.

F161

Organometallic chemistry

The study of reactions between organic compounds and metals.

F162

Polymer chemistry

The study of the properties of macromolecular compounds and their synthesis.

F163

Bio-organic chemistry

The study of natural organic compounds.

F164

Petrochemical chemistry

The chemical science of petroleum and petroleum compounds.

F165

Biomolecular chemistry

The chemical science of biological materials at the molecular level.

F170

Physical chemistry

The study of atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, energetics and dynamics.

F180

Analytical chemistry

The study of chemical and instrumental analysis.

F190

Chemistry not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Chemistry categories. To be used sparingly.

F200

Materials science

The study of the crystalline and granular structure of materials, including electronic atomic and molecular configurations. May include the study of mining and mining techniques.

F290

Materials science not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Materials Science categories. To be used sparingly.

F300

Physics

The study of the properties of matter and energy and the relationships between them, making extensive use of mathematical techniques and models. May include mechanics, optics, electricity, magnetism and acoustics. May also include atomic, nuclear, particle and solid state studies.

F310

Applied physics

Topics in physics of commercial or social importance.

F311

Engineering physics

Physical principles and techniques applied to engineering and technology.

F320

Chemical physics

Concerned with central area of physical science, integrating chemistry and physics.

F321

Solid-state physics

Study of the structure of solids and the explanation of their properties.

F330

Environmental physics

Aspects of physics concerned with environmental issues.

F331

Atmospheric physics

The study of the Earth's stratosphere, troposphere and upper atmosphere including atmospheric kinetics and water in the atmosphere.

F332

Marine physics

The study of the physical properties of the marine environment.

F340

Mathematical & theoretical physics

The mathematical principles and techniques of physics theory and explanation of physical phenomena.

F341

Electromagnetism

The study of the interaction of charges in electromagnetic fields.

F342

Quantum mechanics

Description and analysis of sub-atomic behaviour.

F343

Computational physics

Numerical and quantitative methods in physics.

F350

Medical physics

The application of Physics to the medical sciences.

F351

Radiation physics

Monitoring and evaluation of emissions from sources of radiation.

F360

Optical physics

The study of optics as a natural phenomenon and optical instrumentation.

F361

Laser physics

The study of lasers as optical instrumentation.

F370

Nuclear & particle physics

The study of matter at atomic and sub-atomic level, and of the structure and behaviour of nuclei.

F380

Acoustics

The study of the propagation and transmission of sound waves.

F390

Physics not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Physics categories. To be used sparingly.

F400

Forensic & archaeological sciences

The specifically scientific study of materials involved in investigative procedures. May necessitate the study of chemical processes and other scientific techniques including archaeological sciences.

F410

Forensic science

The application of Forensic Science in evaluating evidence in courts of law. The techniques used include fingerprinting (both traditional and genetic), analysis of blood and poison samples, ballistics etc.

F420

Archaeological science

The study of the scientific analysis of the material remains of past cultures. Includes an approach to reconstruct and understand the past. Also includes the application of physical, chemical and biological techniques to aid scientific, archaeological and geoarchaeological investigations.

F490

Forensic & archaeological sciences not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Forensic and Archaeological Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

F500

Astronomy

The specifically scientific study of celestial bodies. Includes mathematics, statistics, physics, photography and computing.

F510

Astrophysics

The study of the physical nature of the universe including cosmology and astronomical techniques.

F520

Space & planetary sciences

The study of the solar system and evaluation of physical measurements from space.

F521

Space science

The physical science study of space beyond the solar system.

F522

Planetary science

The study of the physical science of the solar system including the measurement of the Earth and its gravitational field.

F530

Solar & solar terrestrial physics

The study of the sun and the interaction of the sun with the Earth.

F540

Astronomy observation

The study of astronomy utilising observational techniques to undertake research.

F550

Astronomy theory

The study of the theoretical aspects of astronomy.

F590

Astronomy not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Astronomy categories. To be used sparingly.

F600

Geology

The study of the origin, history, structure and composition of the earth. Encourages understanding of environmental problems and includes techniques on searching for mineral resources and other raw materials.

F610

Applied geology

Topics in geology of commercial or social importance.

F611

Industrial geology

The study of geological processes of industrial significance.

F612

Engineering geology

Geological structures and processes in an engineering context.

F620

Mining geology

Geological topics related to the mining and minerals industry.

F621

Exploration geology

Aspects related to the exploration for mineral resources.

F630

Geotechnology

The study of the principles and applications of geotechnical engineering. Includes aspects of civil engineering and the construction and extraction industries.

F631

Marine geotechnology

The study of geotechnical processes in marine environments.

F640

Earth science

The study of the earth as a unified system; includes earth resources, surface and crustal processes.

F641

Palaeontology

The study of the fossil record.

F642

Geoscience

The study of the earth sciences, including geological chemistry and physics.

F643

Quaternary studies

The study of the rock systems of the most recent geological period.

F644

Hydrogeology

The study of the physical, chemical and biological processes which occur at the interface between rock and water at or below the Earth's surface at all scales. Includes water-related geological processes beneath oceans, aquifers, groundwater resources and the response of aquifers to environmental change.

F645

Mantle & core processes

The study of the processes which determine the behaviour and composition of the Earth's mantle and core.

F646

Land-atmosphere interactions

The study of the quantification and modelling of the fluxes and transformations of material and energy between the land (including the biosphere) and the atmosphere. Includes the variability of these interactions in time and space.

F650

Geological oceanography

The study of the sedimentary processes including deposition and dynamics in the oceans.

F660

Geophysics

The study of the physical structure and dynamics of the earth.

F661

Exploration geophysics

Geophysical techniques concerned with the discovery of geological deposits.

F670

Geochemistry

The study of the chemical processes taking place at or near the earth's surface.

F680

Geohazards

The study of the prediction, monitoring, environmental effects, risks and mitigation of long-term, extreme and catastrophic natural geological events including landslips, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Includes the assessment of the frequency and magnitude of triggers and events.

F681

Seismology & tectonics

The study of the processes affecting the large-scale movement and deformation of the Earth's crust. Includes orogenesis, faulting, earthquakes and seismicity, neotectonics and the tectonic control of sedimentation.

F682

Vulcanology

The study of the origin of ancient and modern volcanoes and vulcanicity. Includes the location, history and structure of volcanoes, their emissions and deposits. Also includes the reconstruction of these characteristics and of earth history from studies of volcanic materials and their impacts in the geological record.

F690

Geology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Geology categories. To be used sparingly.

F700

Science of aquatic & terrestrial environments

The study of environments comprising the earth's surface, oceans, sea-bed and atmosphere; and the interactions between them.

F710

Marine sciences

The study of the coastal environment and mariculture.

F720

Hydrography

The collection and application of data about the sea, including surveying and the study of tides and currents.

F730

Ocean sciences

The study of oceans, the seabed and atmosphere. Includes oceanography. May include studies associated with physics, chemistry, geology and biology.

F731

Ocean circulation

The study of water circulation in seas and oceans on a variety of temporal and spatial scales based on modelling and/or observations. Includes extreme water circulation events.

F732

Oceanographic survey & monitoring

The study of oceanographic survey mapping and monitoring (as the primary purpose of the activity, rather than as a tool).

F733

Land-ocean interaction

The study of the quantification and modelling of the fluxes and transformations of material and energy between the terrestrial and marine environments. Includes the variability of these interactions in time and space.

F734

Atmosphere-ocean interactions

The study of the quantification and modelling of the fluxes and transformations of material and energy between the marine and atmospheric environments. Includes feedback mechanisms, coupled ocean/atmosphere models and the variability of these interactions in time and space.

F750

Environmental sciences

The study of the terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environment and human interaction with it.

F751

Applied environmental sciences

Topics in Environmental Sciences of industrial or commercial importance.

F752

Hydrology

The study of bodies of water, their distribution and water resources.

F753

Pollution control

The study of monitoring with the intention to reduce the emission and distribution of noxious substances in the environment.

F754

Biogeochemical cycles

The study of the fluxes and cycling of matter within and between the biosphere and the physical environment.

F755

Environmental informatics

The study of the science of information applied to environmental sciences relating to the creation, collection, storage, processing, modelling, interpretation, display and dissemination of data and information.

F756

Environmental physiology

The study of the physiological responses of plants and animals to the environment. Includes homeostasis, stress and physiological responses and survival strategies.

F760

Climatology

The study of secular weather conditions and climates.

F761

Meteorology

The study of atmospheric conditions related to weather conditions and forecasting.

F762

Large-scale atmospheric dynamics & transport

The study of global circulation of the troposphere and stratosphere, including time variability, wave motions (from small-scale gravity waves to large-scale planetary waves and equatorial waves) and their effect on the radiation balance. Also includes large-scale transport and mixing processes in the free troposphere and stratosphere.

F763

Boundary-layer meteorology

The study of models of local and regional airflow and dispersion. Includes the understanding of airflow over complex surfaces, urban meteorology and links to air pollutant formation and dispersion.

F764

Climate & climate change

The study of the modelling and analysis of current and past climate variability and causes of change on all timescales. Includes the understanding and modelling of future climate change, the detection and attribution of past change and the prediction of impacts of climate change on the environment.

F765

Radiative processes & effects

The study of the observations and modelling of radiation from the ultra-violet to the infrared and microwave. Includes field, laboratory and modelling studies of radiation and its effects on the environment.

F770

Soil science

The study of the properties of soils and the processes involved in their formation and distribution.

F780

Glaciology & cryospheric systems

The study of the origins, processes of formation, characteristics and impacts of glacial, ice cap, shelf ice and sea ice features. Includes physical, chemical and biological processes in the cryosphere. Also includes glacial tectonics and ice deformation, periglacial processes, determination of glacial events from the geological record and the interactions between the cryosphere and the atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic environments.

F790

Science of aquatic & terrestrial environments not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Science of Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment categories. To be used sparingly.

F800

Physical geographical sciences

The spatially-related study of natural features of the earth. Includes topographical, physical, biological, environmental and information management concepts.

F810

Environmental geography

The investigation of the relationship between natural and human environments.

F811

Biogeography

The study of the geographical distribution of flora and fauna.

F840

Physical geography

The study of the physical processes underlying the features of the Earth's surface.

F841

Maritime geography

The geographical study of coastal and marine regions.

F842

Geomorphology

The study of the processes determining the topography of the Earth's crust.

F843

Topography

The description of the Earth's surface features and their mapping and surveying.

F844

Cartography

The preparation and production of maps and/or charts.

F845

Remote sensing

Topographic and geomatic data surveying carried out over a distance.

F846

Geographical information systems

The collection and transmission of geographical data using information technology.

F890

Physical geographical sciences not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Physical Geographical Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

F900

Others in physical sciences

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Physical Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

F990

Physical sciences not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the others in Physical Sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

G - Mathematical Sciences

G100

Mathematics

The rigorous analysis of quantities, magnitudes, forms and their relationships, using symbolic logic and language, both in its own right and as applied to other disciplines.

G110

Pure mathematics

The rigorous analysis of quantities, magnitudes, forms and their relationships, using symbolic logic and language.

G120

Applied mathematics

The application of mathematical principles to the solution of functional area problems.

G121

Mechanics (mathematical)

Branch of applied mathematics concerned with motion and the tendency to motion.

G130

Mathematical methods

The study of specific techniques for the precise solution of mathematical problems.

G140

Numerical analysis

The study of the mathematical methods used to obtain approximate (numerical) results to a problem on a digital computer.

G150

Mathematical modelling

The use of mathematical principles to construct simplified representations and simulations of 'real-world' processes, allowing calculations and predictions to be made.

G160

Engineering/industrial mathematics

Branch of mathematics concerned with the application of mathematical principles in the areas of engineering and industrial systems/processes.

G170

Computational mathematics

The study of advanced mathematical topics used in computational processes across a range of applications.

G190

Mathematics not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Mathematics categories. To be used sparingly.

G200

Operational research

The development and application of complex mathematical or simulation models to solve problems involving operational systems, where the system concerned is subject to human intervention.

G290

Operational research not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Operational Research categories. To be used sparingly.

G300

Statistics

The study of the collection and analysis of numerical data.

G310

Applied statistics

The application of statistical techniques to functional areas.

G311

Medical statistics

The application of statistical techniques to the collection and analysis of numerical data relating to medicine.

G320

Probability

The mathematical study of chance.

G330

Stochastic processes

The mathematical study of systems and processes involving variables subject to random variations.

G340

Statistical modelling

The use of statistical techniques in the modelling and simulation of 'real-world' systems or processes.

G350

Mathematical statistics

Concerned with the mathematical theory and proofs forming the basis of probability and inference, and their applications to the collection, analysis and description of data.

G390

Statistics not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Statistics categories. To be used sparingly.

G900

Others in mathematical sciences

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Mathematical sciences categories. To be uses sparingly.

H - Engineering

H100

General engineering

The study of design, construction, maintenance and development of any device which uses the resources of nature to turn energy into productive and useful work.

H110

Integrated engineering

The study of different branches of engineering and how they may interrelate.

H120

Safety engineering

The study of engineering structures and the development and use of materials with particular emphasis on preventing injury or sickness.

H121

Fire safety engineering

The study of engineering structures and the development and use of materials with particular emphasis on preventing injury or damage through fire.

H122

Water quality control

The study of engineering structures and fluid mechanics with particular emphasis on improving and maintaining water supplies and the disposal of waste water. May include considerations of health, hygiene and recreational use.

H123

Public health engineering

The study of engineering principles, design and construction, with particular emphasis on public health and safety.

H130

Computer-aided engineering

The study and development of the use of computers with particular application to engineering problems. Includes aspects of software design and programming skills.

H131

Automated engineering design

The study and development of the use of computers with particular application to engineering development and design. Includes aspects of software design and programming skills.

H140

Mechanics

The study of the equilibrium of bodies or their motion within a particular frame of reference. May also be called Stress Analysis.

H141

Fluid mechanics

The study of the mechanical and flow properties of fluids. May also be called Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulics or Hydrodynamics. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H142

Solid mechanics

The study of the mechanical and static properties of solids. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H143

Structural mechanics

The study of the equilibrium and motion of structures either of themselves or influenced by forces outside them. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H150

Engineering design

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the development of electronic or manufacturing engineering tools.

H160

Bioengineering, biomedical engineering & clinical engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to biological and bio-medical systems.

H161

Biomaterials

The design, study and construction of materials for interaction with living systems. Includes medical materials.

H162

Biomechanics (including fluid & solid mechanics)

The study of how cells, tissues and organisms generate and respond to forces.

H163

Bioelectronics & bioelectricity

The study of electrical phenomena in living systems.

H164

Rehabilitation engineering

The development and study of assistive devices including prosthetics that can promote or substitute for lost or reduced functional capabilities.

H165

Tissue engineering & regenerative medicine

The use of engineering principles to design and manufacture replacement tissues.

H166

Imaging

The use of physical and engineering principles to create devices, systems and algorithms to visualise biological and medical structures and functions.

H167

Biosensors

The design, development and study of devices that detect, record and transmit information regarding a physiological change in the body or the presence of various chemical or biological materials in the environment.

H168

Medical devices & instrumentation

The design and development of devices used for the purpose of diagnosis, prevention, monitoring or treatment of disease.

H169

Neural engineering

The use of engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, enhance or treat the disease of the nervous system; and the design of systems and devices based on the nervous system.

H190

General engineering not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other General Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

H200

Civil engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the designing and construction of public works, e.g. buildings, bridges, pipelines etc. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H210

Structural engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design and construction of physical shapes and forms. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H220

Environmental engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the sympathetic use of natural resources.

H221

Energy resources

The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the development and exploitation of various forms of energy, e.g. wind, water, solar etc. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H222

Coastal decay

The study and principles of engineering as they apply to coastal and off-shore structures and the prevention of damage, decay and erosion to the natural environment. Includes the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H223

Environmental impact assessment

The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the assessment and repair of insensitive environmental exploitation or natural upheaval.

H230

Transport engineering

The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the planning, development and construction of the routes for any form of terrestrial transport.

H231

Permanent way engineering

The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the planning, development and construction of the routes for rail transport.

H232

Pavement engineering

The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the planning, development and construction of the routes for road transport.

H240

Surveying science

The study and practice of measuring altitudes, angles and distances on the land surface so that they can be accurately plotted on a map. May include the use of satellite information. Includes the setting out on the ground of the positions of proposed structures.

H241

General practice surveying

The study and practice of measuring altitudes, angles and distances on the land surface in order to discover the land contours and plot constructions accordingly.

H242

Engineering surveying

The study and practice of measuring altitudes, angles and distances on the land surface in order to plan sites and constructions. Includes specialist underwater surveying techniques.

H250

Geotechnical engineering

The study and practice of discovering the formation, arrangement and structure of the rocks of the Earth's crust by means of sonic investigation. Includes the design of earth structures, e.g. dams and foundations of built structures.

H290

Civil engineering not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Civil Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

H300

Mechanical engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, development manufacture and operation of machinery.

H310

Dynamics

The study of the forces that change or produce the motion of bodies. May include the study of kinetics.

H311

Thermodynamics

The study of the interrelationship and interconversion of different forms of energy. Includes the study of the effects of pressure, temperature etc. May also be called Heat Exchange Technology. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H320

Mechanisms & machines

The study of the assembly and structure of moving parts arranged to transmit or modify force in order to perform some function.

H321

Turbine technology

The study of the conversion of the kinetic energy of a moving fluid via a rotating blade into mechanical energy. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H330

Automotive engineering

The study of mechanical self propulsion in vehicles.

H331

Road vehicle engineering

The study of mechanical self propulsion in road vehicles.

H332

Rail vehicle engineering

The study of mechanical self propulsion in rail vehicles.

H333

Ship propulsion engineering

The study of mechanical self propulsion in floating vessels.

H340

Acoustics & vibration

The study of oscillation and resonance.

H341

Acoustics

The study of sound and sound waves.

H342

Vibration

The study of periodic motion about an equilibrium position.

H350

Offshore engineering

The study and principles of engineering as they apply to the construction of structures sited in the sea and their interaction with wind and waves. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H360

Electromechanical engineering

The study of electrically-operated mechanical devices.

H390

Mechanical engineering not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous group for related subjects which do not fit into other Mechanical Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

H400

Aerospace engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to aircraft and spacecraft in the atmosphere and in space. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H410

Aeronautical engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of aircraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H411

Air passenger transport engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of passenger-carrying aircraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H412

Air freight transport engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of freight-carrying aircraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H413

Air combat engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of combat aircraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H420

Astronautical engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design, production and maintenance of spacecraft. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H430

Avionics

The study of electronics as applied to aeronautics and astronautics. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H440

Aerodynamics

The study of the flow properties of gases, especially the forces acting on a body passing through air, and the interaction of the body's deformation with the flow. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H441

Flight mechanics

The study of natural or constructed bodies in flight; how they are affected and influenced by forces outside them. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H450

Propulsion systems

The study of aerospace locomotion and its driving force. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H460

Aviation studies

The study of the technical aspects of flying and navigation.

H490

Aerospace engineering not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Aerospace Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

H500

Naval architecture

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to ships and their reaction to water and its pressures. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H510

Shipbuilding

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of ships and boats. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H511

Surface passenger ship building

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of passenger-carrying ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H512

Surface freight ship building

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of freight-carrying ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H513

Surface combat ship building

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of combat ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H514

Submarine building

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the production and maintenance of ships which float on or under the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H520

Ship design

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of floating vessels. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H521

Surface passenger ship design

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of passenger-carrying ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H522

Surface freight ship design

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of freight-carrying ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H523

Surface combat ship design

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of combat ships which float on or above the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H524

Submarine design

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of ships which float on or under the surface of the water. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H590

Naval architecture not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Naval Architecture categories. To be used sparingly.

H600

Electronic & electrical engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the practical uses of electricity. Involves the study of charged particles.

H610

Electronic engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to devices whereby electrons are conducted through a semi-conductor, free space or gas. Closely linked with electrical engineering.

H611

Microelectronic engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to microcircuits.

H612

Integrated circuit design

The study of the most efficient processing of semiconductor material to form integrated circuits.

H620

Electrical engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the practical uses of electrical systems. Involves the study of charged particles. Closely linked with electronic engineering.

H630

Electrical power

The study of the rates at which electrical energy is fed into or taken from a device or system. Involves the study and application of specialist mathematics.

H631

Electrical power generation

The study and development of techniques for producing electricity.

H632

Electrical power distribution

The study and development of electromotive forces and techniques for distributing electricity.

H640

Communications engineering

The study and principles of engineering as they apply to electronic engineering.

H641

Telecommunications engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the telephonic or telegraphic communication of audio, video or other information (e.g. data) by means of radio waves, optical or electrical signals.

H642

Broadcast engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the equipment required to transmit audio or video information for radio and/or television programmes.

H643

Satellite engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to man-made devices orbiting the earth for communication purposes.

H644

Microwave engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to electromagnetic radiation or very short length radio waves used for transmitting and collecting information.

H650

Systems engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to an assembly of electrical, electronic and mechanical components with interdependent functions.

H651

Digital circuit engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to discrete values of input and output voltage levels.

H652

Analogue circuit engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to voltages or currents used to measure or represent quantities.

H660

Control systems

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to electrical and electronic methods of measurement, regulation and operation.

H661

Instrumentation control

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the electronic manipulation of tools.

H662

Control by light systems

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the manipulation of tools by visible electromagnetic radiation.

H670

Robotics & cybernetics

The study of the relationship between biological systems and man-made systems designed and created to mimic them.

H671

Robotics

The study of designing, building and use of robots.

H672

Cybernetics

The study of control systems in electronic and mechanical devices and the extent to which comparisons can be made between man-made and biological systems.

H674

Virtual reality engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to computer-generated environments.

H680

Optoelectronic engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to devices in which an optical input produces electrical output or in which electrical stimulation produces visible, ultraviolet or infrared output.

H690

Electronic & electrical engineering not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Electronic and Electrical Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

H700

Production & manufacturing engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the management and control of factory and workshop techniques and the industrial developments in technology and materials.

H710

Manufacturing systems engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to electrical and electronic methods of manufacture.

H711

Manufacturing systems design

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design of new and/or replacement production-line technology.

H712

Manufacturing installation systems

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the design and installation of production-line technology.

H713

Production processes

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to efficient application of production-line technology.

H714

Manufacturing systems maintenance

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the maintenance of production-line technology.

H720

Quality assurance engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the creation of models from which conclusions about real situations can be researched.

H730

Mechatronics

The study of electronics as applied to the development of symbiotic software/hardware technology.

H790

Production & manufacturing engineering not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Production and Manufacturing Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

H800

Chemical, process & energy engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the industrial use and exploitation of chemical and atomic energy.

H810

Chemical engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial processing to produce food, pharmaceuticals, plastics, petroleum products etc., and alternatives to them.

H811

Biochemical engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial production of organic chemical compounds such as proteins and enzymes.

H812

Pharmaceutical engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial preparation of drugs.

H820

Atomic engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial use and development of atoms and atomic energy.

H821

Nuclear engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial use and development of nuclear energy.

H830

Chemical process engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to industrial processes, particularly continuous ones, such as the production of petrochemicals.

H831

Bioprocess engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to biological processes in industry.

H840

Gas engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to gases and their production and use.

H850

Petroleum engineering

The study of the principles of engineering as they apply to the extraction, processing and refining of petroleum.

H890

Chemical, process & energy engineering not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Chemical, Process and Energy Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

H900

Others in engineering

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

H990

Engineering not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

I - Computer Sciences

I100

Computer science

The study of the design and application of electronic computer systems, including computer architectures, software and systems design.

I110

Computer architectures & operating systems

The study of the systemic structure of computer systems and the associated software which facilitates the efficient co-ordination and use of the component units.

I111

Computer architectures

The study of the systemic structure of computer systems.

I112

Operating systems

The study of software which is designed to facilitate the efficient co-ordination and use of system components.

I113

Displays & imaging

The study of the software, hardware and mathematical tools used to represent, display and manipulate computer graphics.

I114

High end computing

The study of high-performance computing using supercomputers and clusters to solve advanced computational problems.

I115

Parallel computing

The study of simultaneous calculations for complex computations.

I120

Networks & communications

The study of computer network systems and computer communications techniques/protocols.

I130

Computational science foundations

The study of the fundamental laws or principles underpinning the design, construction and use of computer systems.

I140

Human-computer interaction

The study, design and application of principles and techniques aimed at optimising the interaction between computer systems and their human users.

I150

Multimedia computing science

The area of computer science concerned with the computer controlled delivery of information in a variety of forms, including text, pictures, video, graphics and animation. Often associated with information presentation on the Internet.

I160

Internet

The study of internet-related computing including Cloud Computing.

I161

e-business

The study of the nature of e-business, its system components and applications.

I190

Computer science not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Computer science categories. To be used sparingly.

I200

Information systems

The study, design or application of computer systems which capture, process and transmit information.

I210

Information modelling

Concerned with the modelling of information flows within an organisation and how these flows can be optimised and incorporated into the design of a large-scale computer system.

I220

Systems design methodologies

The study of standard methodologies for the design of large-scale computer systems.

I230

Systems analysis & design

The study of the principles and techniques for the design and implementation of large-scale computer systems.

I240

Databases

The study, design or application of information systems which act as structured repositories for large amounts of information.

I250

Systems auditing

The study and development of techniques for inspecting, correcting and verifying information systems.

I260

Data management

The management of computer systems which capture, process and transmit data.

I270

Intelligent & expert systems

The study of digitally-based products and systems within manufactured goods, including telematic devices, human interfaces and reasoning for computing systems.

I290

Systems analysis & design not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Systems analysis & design categories. To be used sparingly.

I300

Software engineering

The study of techniques and principles for the design, construction, testing and maintenance of computer programs to satisfy the requirements of specific operational problems.

I310

Software design

Concerned with the design of computer instruction sets to satisfy the requirements of specific operational problems.

I320

Programming

Concerned with the conversion of designs into computer instruction sets in order to satisfy the requirements of specific operational problems.

I321

Procedural programming

Programming using procedural computer languages and environments, e.g. Pascal, Fortran, Cobol.

I322

Object-oriented programming

Programming using object-oriented programming languages and environments.

I323

Declarative programming

Programming using declarative programming languages, e.g. Prolog, Miranda.

I390

Software engineering not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Software engineering categories. To be used sparingly.

I400

Artificial intelligence

The study of principles and techniques for the computer-based simulation and modelling of intelligent animal behaviour patterns.

I410

Speech & natural language processing

The study of principles and techniques for the computer-based modelling and simulation of the human use of language.

I420

Knowledge representation

Concerned with principles and methodologies for the capture, representation, storage and application of human knowledge in a computer system.

I430

Neural computing

The study of computer-based hardware and software constructs which aim to model and simulate the salient features of animal nervous systems.

I440

Computer vision

The study and development of digital image perception.

I450

Cognitive modelling

The study and development of the processes involved in acquiring knowledge.

I460

Machine learning

The study and development of techniques whereby machines may gain knowledge through experience, deduction or reasoning.

I461

Automated reasoning

The study and development of techniques whereby machines may draw conclusions from facts and experience.

I490

Artificial intelligence not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Artificial intelligence categories. To be used sparingly.

I500

Health informatics

The study and design of systems for information capture, processing and use in healthcare.

I510

Health technologies

The study of health technology methods used to promote health, prevent and treat disease and improve rehabilitation or long-term care.

I520

Bioinformatics

The study of the application of computer-based technologies and services to biological, biomedical, and biotechnology research.

I530

Tele healthcare

The study of tele healthcare technology to enable a flexible, integrated approach to health and social care services.

I590

Health informatics not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Health Informatics categories. To be used sparingly.

I600

Games

The study of computer science games.

I610

Computer games programming

The study of games programming, methods of interaction and console architectures.

I620

Computer games design

The study of the use of artistic and visual communication techniques in the design and production of computer games.

I630

Computer games graphics

The study of the use of visual communications and graphics technologies in the design and production of computer games.

I700

Computer generated visual & audio effects

The study of the production of computer generated special visual and/or audio effects for use in static or moving image sequences.

I710

Computer generated imagery

The study of the particular techniques associated with the creation of illusion of movement in static or moving image sequences by the use of computer generated imagery.

I900

Others in Computer sciences

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Computer sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

I990

Computer sciences not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Computer sciences categories. To be used sparingly.

J - Technologies

J100

Minerals technology

The study of the production of minerals and metals and their separation from other elements contained within mineral deposits.

J110

Mining

The study of the extraction and processing of minerals and metals.

J120

Quarrying

The study of the extraction and processing of stone.

J130

Rock mechanics

The study of stress, elasticity, failure criteria and plasticity of the upper layers of the Earth's crust.

J140

Minerals processing

The processing of minerals and metals from their raw or ore states.

J150

Minerals surveying

The analysis of the Earth's upper crust for the purposes of identifying minerals and metals.

J160

Petrochemical technology

The extraction and processing of petrochemicals.

J190

Minerals technology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Minerals Technology categories. To be used sparingly.

J200

Metallurgy

The study of the principles of minerals technology as they apply to the structure and properties of metals, their extraction, refining, alloys and manufacture. Involves practical element.

J210

Applied metallurgy

Topics in metallurgy of commercial or social importance.

J220

Metallic fabrication

The processes involved in the production and manufacture of metallic objects and structures.

J221

Pattern making

The precision cutting of metals for use in the production of objects and structures.

J230

Corrosion technology

The study and control of the corrosion of metals.

J290

Metallurgy not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Metallurgy categories. To be used sparingly.

J300

Ceramics & glass

The study of the principles of minerals technology as they apply to clay and clay-based products. Stresses the use of the raw material rather than how it is extracted.

J310

Ceramics

The study of the principles of minerals technology as they apply to ceramics. Stresses the use of the raw material rather than how it is extracted.

J320

Glass technology

The study of the principles of minerals technology as they apply to glass and glass derivatives. Stresses the use of the raw material rather than how it is extracted.

J390

Ceramics & glass not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Ceramics and Glass categories. To be used sparingly.

J400

Polymers & textiles

The study of molecular compounds or filaments. Stresses the use of the raw material rather than how it is extracted.

J410

Polymers technology

The use and development of polymers.

J411

Plastics

The use and development of plastics.

J420

Textiles technology

The use and development of textiles.

J421

Textile chemistry

The development of textiles from chemical compounds.

J422

Dying & colouring of textiles

The study of dying and colouring agents and their application to textiles.

J430

Leather technology

The study of the processing and use of leather. Includes tanning and methods of preserving leather.

J431

Tanning

The conversion of raw hide into leather.

J440

Clothing production

The study of the methods and processes used in the production of clothing.

J441

Machine knitting

The study of the programming and operation of knitting machines.

J442

Commercial tailoring

The making and adaptation of clothing to specific measurements.

J443

Pattern cutting

The design and cutting of patterns from cloth.

J444

Millinery

The design and production of hats.

J445

Footwear production

The design and production of footwear.

J490

Polymers & textiles not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Polymers and Textiles categories. To be used sparingly.

J500

Materials technology not otherwise specified

Grouping for any materials or materials-related technology which does not fit into the other Materials Technology categories.

J510

Materials technology

The processing, storage and production of materials.

J511

Engineering materials

The processing, storage and production of materials used in engineering.

J512

Paper technology

The processing, storage and production of paper and paper-based materials.

J513

Furniture technology

The processing, storage and production of materials used in furniture making.

J520

Printing

The study of the processes involved in printing.

J521

Offset lithography

The study of the processes involved in offset lithographic printing.

J522

Photo-lithography

The study of the processes involved in photo-lithography.

J523

Reprographic techniques

The study of the processes involved in reprographics.

J524

Screen process printing

The study of the processes involved in screen process printing.

J530

Gemmology

The processing, cutting and polishing of precious stones.

J590

Materials technology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other, specified, Materials Technology categories. To be used sparingly.

J600

Maritime technology

The study of practical or mechanical sciences connected with the sea, involving marine technology, as it applies to industry or commerce.

J610

Marine technology

The processes and systems used in boats, ships and other marine craft.

J611

Marine navigation

The study of the specific processes involved in marine navigation.

J612

Marine radar

The use of radar in boats, ships and other marine craft.

J613

Marine radio

The use of radio and telecommunications systems in boats, ships and other marine craft.

J614

Marine plumbing

The use of plumbing systems in boats, ships and other marine craft.

J690

Maritime technology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Maritime Technology categories. To be used sparingly.

J700

Biotechnology

The use of biological processes or organisms for the production of materials and services. Biotechnology includes the use of techniques for the improvement of the characteristics of economically important plants and animals and for the development of micro-organisms to act on the environment.

J710

Plant biotechnology (crops, trees, shrubs etc.)

Involves the molecular and microbial manipulation of plants.

J720

Animal biotechnology

Involves the molecular and microbial manipulation of animals.

J730

Environmental biotechnology

The integration of sciences and engineering in order to utilise the biochemical potential of microorganisms, plants and parts thereof for the restoration and preservation of the environment and for the sustainable use of resources.

J740

Industrial biotechnology

The use of plants, microorganisms and their constituent molecular and biochemical components for use in potentially large-scale applications in industry.

J750

Medical biotechnology

Biotechnology as applied to the development of human/veterinary diagnostic, therapeutic systems. Not Medical Technology.

J790

Biotechnology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Industrial Biotechnology categories. To be used sparingly.

J900

Others in technology

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Technologies categories. To be used sparingly.

J910

Energy technologies

Technologies involved in the production, transmission and storage of energy.

J920

Ergonomics

The study of the efficiency and effectiveness of the interface between people and machines.

J930

Audio technology

The study of the systems and processes used in the manipulation and amplification of sound. Includes the recording of sound and/or music.

J931

Music recording

The study of/training in the techniques required to obtain accurate and lifelike recordings of musical performances.

J940

Machinery maintenance

The techniques and skills involved in the routine maintenance of machines.

J941

Office machinery maintenance

The techniques and skills involved in the routine maintenance of office machinery.

J942

Industrial machinery maintenance

The techniques and skills involved in the routine maintenance of industrial machinery.

J950

Musical instrument technology

The study of the systems and processes used in the manufacture of musical instruments.

J960

Transport logistics

The study of the optimal methods of mass distribution services.

J970

Emergency & disaster technologies

The study of technical responses to emergencies and disasters.

J990

Technologies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Technology categories. To be used sparingly.

K - Architecture, Building and Planning

K100

Architecture

The study of the design, construction and erection of structures. Combines design creativity with technical competence.

K110

Architectural design theory

Design of buildings for human activity, taking into account both internal and external environmental factors.

K120

Interior architecture

The study of enclosed spaces; design, implementation and materials.

K130

Architectural technology

The theory and practice of advanced techniques and new materials in architectural design and construction.

K190

Architecture not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Architecture categories. To be used sparingly.

K200

Building

The study of building materials and techniques. Includes building and environment law and economics, architectural engineering and quantity surveying.

K210

Building technology

The understanding of building design and its relationship with production.

K220

Construction management

The implementation of construction projects to the client's specification from inception to completion.

K230

Building surveying

The analysis of a building's performance from design and construction, through to maintenance and repair.

K240

Quantity surveying

The financial management of project design and construction, whether for client or contractor.

K250

Conservation of buildings

The repair, restoration and preservation of old or damaged and/or culturally significant buildings including conservation technology.

K251

Property development

The practical and theoretical study of property that is to be improved or altered in some way from its original purpose, or to be modernised or expanded within its current purpose.

K290

Building not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Building categories. To be used sparingly.

K300

Landscape & garden design

The study of the design, construction and management of land-based space and scenery.

K310

Landscape architecture

The study of the planning, design, construction and management of large land-based spaces within the context of human activity in the urban or natural environment.

K320

Landscape studies

The planning and management of the built and natural environment as landscape.

K330

Landscape design

The study of the design, construction and management of domestic land-based space and scenery. Includes buildings within the landscape and the habitat surrounding them.

K340

Garden design

The study of the design, construction and management of public and private gardens.  

K341

Garden horticulture

The study of horticulture with specific reference to public and private gardens.

K390

Landscape & garden design not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Landscape & garden design categories. To be used sparingly.

K400

Planning (urban, rural & regional)

The study of the interaction between town and country land use. Includes the use of land for building.

K410

Regional planning

The preparation of strategic plans for the development of a region.

K420

Urban & rural planning

The planning of the infrastructure and development of settlements, including new towns and the management of change.

K421

Urban planning

The planning of the infrastructure, development and management of settlement in towns.

K422

Rural planning

The planning of the infrastructure, development and management of settlement in the country.

K430

Planning studies

Reconciliation of the dynamics of the economic, environmental and social effects in the planning context.

K440

Urban studies

The interaction of the planning process and management policies on the built environment.

K450

Housing

The development and management of housing projects in the private and social sectors and in land use planning.

K460

Transport planning

The development and management of transportation systems.

K490

Planning (urban, rural & regional) not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Planning (Urban, Rural and Regional) categories. To be used sparingly.

K900

Others in architecture, building & planning

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Architecture, Building and Planning categories. To be used sparingly.

K990

Architecture, building & planning not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Architecture, Building and Planning categories. To be used sparingly.

L - Social Studies

L100

Economics

The systematic study of the production, conservation and allocation of resources in conditions of scarcity, together with the organisational frameworks related to these processes.

L110

Applied economics

The study of the application of economic principles and analytical techniques to the study of particular industries, activities or the exploitation of particular resources.

L111

Financial economics

The study of the application of economic principles and analytical techniques in the area of finance.

L112

Agricultural economics

The study of the application of economic principles and analytical techniques in the area of agriculture.

L113

Economic policy

The study of the application of economic principles and analytical techniques in the area of government policy.

L120

Microeconomics

The study of the branch of economics concerned with particular commodities, firms or individuals and the economic relationships between them.

L130

Macroeconomics

The study of the economic environment within which firms and individuals may operate.

L140

Econometrics

The study of the systematic mathematical and statistical analysis of economic phenomena and problems.

L150

Political economics

The study of the branch of economics which deals with the economic implications of political policy.

L160

International economics

The systematic study and analysis of international commercial behaviour and trade policy.

L170

Economic systems

The study of economic systems based upon particular doctrines.

L171

Capitalism

The study of the economic system which is based upon the private ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange.

L172

Monetarism

The study of the system based upon the theory that an economy can be regulated by means of central control of the money supply.

L173

Keynesianism

The system based upon the idea that governments can manage economies by influencing the level of aggregate demand.

L174

Collectivism

The study of the system based upon the principle of ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange by the state, or the people.

L190

Economics not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Economics categories. To be used sparingly.

L200

Politics

The study of activities related to the institution of the state and the machinery of government or the method through which social conflict is expressed and attempts to resolve conflict are made.

L210

Political theories

Collections of ideas that seek to explain the organisation of society and/or resolve conflicts within society.

L211

Liberalism

Political doctrine that emphasises the freedom of the individual and individual rights while minimising the need for external constraints.

L212

Conservatism

Political doctrine that emphasises the need for ordered control of society through the organisation of the state and the upholding of existing traditions and values.

L213

Socialism

Political doctrine that espouses social organisation of society based on co-operation, collectivism, egalitarianism and the communal ownership of the means of production.

L214

Nationalism

Political doctrine that promotes the self-determination of the nation.

L215

Fascism

Political doctrine that emphasises the dominance and the hierarchical authoritarian organisation of the state.

L216

Feminism

Political doctrine that highlights and attempts to reverse any inequalities in society based on gender differences.

L217

Environmentalism

Political doctrine that believes that human life can only be understood in the context of the natural world and that progress lies in the preservation of the natural environment.

L218

Anarchism

Political doctrine that advocates the abolition of central authority so that a more natural social order can develop.

L220

Political systems

The study of the organisation and functions of various methods of government.

L221

Autocracy

The system of government that embodies the rule of an individual with unrestricted authority.

L222

Democracy

The system of government based on the consent of the governed.

L223

Plutocracy

The system of government that embodies the rule of the wealthy.

L224

Oligarchy

The system of government that embodies the rule of the few over the many.

L230

UK government/parliamentary studies

The examination of the structure and function of the UK system of government.

L231

Public administration

The study of the functions and structure of those bodies concerned with the administrative duties of government.

L232

UK constitutional studies

The examination of the nature, content, implications and role of the UK constitution in the UK system of government.

L240

International politics

The study of political structures, functions and theories among the international community.

L241

European Union politics

The study of the structures, functions and theories of politics within the European Union.

L242

Commonwealth politics

The study of the structures, functions and theories of politics within the Commonwealth.

L243

Politics of a specific country/region

The study of the structures, functions and theories of politics within a specific country or region.

L244

International constitutional studies

The examination of the nature, content, implications and role of constitutions in international systems of government.

L250

International relations

The study of the interaction between members of the international community.

L251

Strategic studies

The study of strategies designed to promote and defend the autonomy and interests of a country within the international community.

L252

War & peace studies

The examination of the procedures and processes that contribute to war or peace.

L253

International criminology

The study of the interaction between members of the international criminal justice community.

L260

Comparative politics

The comparative study of differing political structures, political functions and political theories.

L290

Politics not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Politics categories. To be used sparingly.

L300

Sociology

The systematic study of human social institutions and social relationships.

L310

Applied sociology

The study of the application of sociological principles and techniques to particular social institutions or types of social relationship.

L311

Applied criminology

The study of the application of criminological principles and techniques to particular social institutions, relationships or problems.

L312

Victimology

The study of the conceptualisation and role of the victim within the criminal justice system.

L320

Gender studies

The study of the sociological influence of gender.

L321

Women's studies

The study of the role and influence of women in society.

L322

Men's studies

The study of the role and influence of men in society.

L330

Ethnic studies

The study of the sociological influence of ethnicity.

L340

Disability in society

The study of the sociological influence of disability.

L350

Religion in society

The study of the sociological influence of religion.

L360

Socio-economics

The study of the interrelationship between sociological and economic factors.

L370

Social theory

The study of the concept of social behaviour.

L371

Social hierarchy

The study of social stratification.

L380

Political sociology

The study of the sociological dimensions of politics.

L390

Sociology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Sociology categories. To be used sparingly.

L391

Sociology of science & technology

The study of the influence of new scientific and technological developments on society.

L400

Social policy

The study of the policies of institutions which are designed to modify the balance of sociological factors.

L410

UK social policy

The study of the policies of UK institutions which are designed to modify the balance of sociological factors.

L420

International social policy

The study of the policies of international institutions which are designed to modify the balance of sociological factors.

L430

Public policy

The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to influence sociological factors.

L431

Health policy

The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to influence the public health of societies.

L432

Welfare policy

The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to provide support for vulnerable and under-privileged members of society.

L433

Education policy

The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to provide for the educational needs of society.

L434

Transport policy

The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to provide for the transportation needs of society.

L435

Security policy

The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to uphold and defend the structure and authority of the state.

L436

Emergency services policy

The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to support the emergency services.

L437

Criminal justice policy

The study of policies implemented by local and central governments to influence and support criminal justice in society.

L490

Social policy not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Social Policy categories. To be used sparingly.

L500

Social work

The study of the organised means of providing basic support services for vulnerable/under-privileged individuals and/or groups.

L510

Health & welfare

The study of Social Work services aimed at support of the health and welfare of vulnerable/under-privileged individuals and/or groups.

L520

Child care

The study of Social Work services aimed at support of vulnerable/under-privileged children in society.

L530

Youth work

The study of Social Work services aimed at support of vulnerable/under-privileged youths in society.

L540

Community work

The study of Social Work services aimed at support of vulnerable/under-privileged people within particular communities in society.

L541

Community justice

The study of voluntary sector services aimed at the support of victims and/or provision to offenders.

L550

Careers guidance

The study of the provision of support services aimed at helping people to make informed and rational career decisions.

L560

Probation/after-care

The study of the provision of services aimed at supervising criminal offenders and supporting their rehabilitation into society following punishment.

L590

Social work not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Social Work categories. To be used sparingly.

L600

Anthropology

The study of human beings, their antecedents and related primates, and their cultural behaviour and institutions, in comparative perspective.

L610

Social & cultural anthropology

The branch of Anthropology that deals with social phenomena such as kinship systems or beliefs.

L611

Criminological theory

The systematic study of crime, criminal behaviour, causes and prevention.

L620

Physical & biological anthropology

The branch of Anthropology that deals with physical and biological factors in societies.

L690

Anthropology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Anthropology categories. To be used sparingly.

L700

Human & social geography

The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life.

L710

Human & social geography by area

The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in a particular area.

L711

Human & social geography of Europe

The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the European continent.

L712

Human & social geography of Asia

The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the Asian continent.

L713

Human & social geography of Africa

The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the African continent.

L714

Human & social geography of Australasia

The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the Australasian continent.

L715

Human & social geography of the Americas

The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the American continent.

L716

Human & social geography of the Arctic/Antarctic

The systematic study of the spatial distribution and interrelationships of people, natural resources, plant and animal life in the Arctic and Antarctic continents.

L720

Human & social geography by topic

The study of particular topics within Human and Social Geography.

L721

Economic geography

The study of the relationship between economic factors and the distribution and interaction of people with the natural environment.

L722

Urban geography

The study of the relationship between people and the environment in towns and cities.

L723

Political geography

The study of the influence of political factors in the distribution of populations and their effect on the environment.

L724

Transport geography

The study of the influence of travel and transport on populations and the environment.

L725

Historical geography

The study of earlier and continuing topographical, topological and social developments and their influence on populations and the environment.

L726

Cultural geography

The study of the influence of beliefs and value systems on populations and the environment.

L727

Agricultural geography

The study of agricultural influences on populations and the environment.

L728

Human Demography

The statistical study of any kind of human population that changes over time or space. Includes the study of the size, structure and distribution of human populations and spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging and death.

L790

Human & social geography not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Human and Social Geography categories. To be used sparingly.

L800

Development studies

The study of global and local processes of cultural, demographic, economic, environmental, political, technological and social change in low and middle income parts of the world, with particular reference to structures and institutions, the changing relationships between developed and developing countries and the critical interrogation of theories of these processes and relationships, and of development policy.

L900

Others in social studies

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Social studies categories. To be used sparingly.

L990

Social studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Social studies categories. To be used sparingly.

M - Law

M100

Law by area

The study of the law as defined in particular geographic regions.

M110

UK legal systems

The study of the law of the United Kingdom.

M111

English law

The study of the Law of England.

M112

Welsh law

The study of the law of Wales.

M113

Northern Irish law

The study of the law of Northern Ireland.

M114

Scottish law

The study of the law of Scotland.

M120

European Union law

The study of European law.

M130

Public international law

The study of the law governing countries beyond the boundaries of the European Union.

M140

Comparative law

The study of different legal structures and systems.

M190

Law by area not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Law by Area categories. To be used sparingly.

M200

Law by topic

The study of particular aspects of law.

M210

Public law

The study of the definition and application of public law.

M211

Criminal law

The study of the definition and application of criminal law.

M220

Private law

The study of the definition and application of private law.

M221

Business & commercial law

The study of the definition and application of business and commercial law.

M222

Contract law

The study of the law of contracts.

M223

Property law

The study of the law of property.

M224

Torts

The study of civil wrongs and injuries.

M240

Jurisprudence

The science or philosophy of law.

M250

Legal practice

The study of the duties and requirements of legal representation.

M260

Medical law

The study of the law relating to the practice of medicine.

M270

Sociology of law

The study of legal phenomena from a social and inter-disciplinary perspective bridging the divide between law, sociology, social policy and economics.

M290

Law by topic not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Law by Topic categories. To be used sparingly.

M900

Others in law

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Law categories. To be used sparingly.

M990

Law not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Law categories. To be used sparingly.

N - Business and Administrative Studies

N100

Business studies

The study of organisations and the environment in which they operate.

N110

European business studies

The study of organisations and their operations within Europe.

N120

International business studies

The study of organisations and their operations throughout the world.

N190

Business studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Business studies categories. To be used sparingly.

N200

Management studies

The study of managing organisations.

N210

Management techniques

The specific techniques for managing an organisation.

N211

Strategic management

The techniques involved in the formation and implementation of a strategy within an organisation.

N212

Creative management

Techniques for creative problem solving and the management of creativity in others.

N213

Project management

The techniques specific to the planning, managing and monitoring of projects.

N214

Change management

The specific techniques involved in the planning and management of change within an organisation.

N215

Organisational development

The techniques involved in the development of an organisation's physical and human resources, structure and culture.

N220

Institutional management

The study of the specific techniques required for the management of specific types of institutions.

N223

Domestic management

The specific management techniques involved in the management of homes for the elderly or infirm, children's' homes, and other care homes.

N224

Management & organisation of education

The study of the personnel and administration necessary for the efficient organisation of an education establishment. May include investigation of disparate subjects such as office skills, book-keeping, interpersonal skills, child welfare etc.

N225

Criminal justice management

The study of the personnel and administration necessary for the efficient organisation of policing and the punishment and rehabilitation of offenders.

N230

Land & property management

The techniques involved in the management of land, buildings and similar physical resources.

N231

Land management

The techniques involved in the management of land.

N232

Property management

The techniques involved in the management of buildings and other structures.

N234

Property valuation & auctioneering

The specific techniques involved in the valuation and auctioneering of property.

N240

Retail management

The specific techniques involved in the management of retail outlets.

N250

Emergency & disaster management

The specific techniques for managing emergencies and disasters.

N251

Emergency services management

The specific techniques involved in the management of emergency services.

N252

Disaster management

The specific techniques required for the management of disasters.

N290

Management studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Management studies categories. To be used sparingly.

N300

Finance

The study of financial systems, regulations and reporting.

N310

Banking

The study of the banking industry.

N320

Investment & insurance

The study of the investment and insurance industries and the techniques used therein.

N321

Investment

The study of the investment industry and the techniques used therein.

N322

Insurance

The study of the insurance industry and the techniques used therein.

N323

Actuarial science

The application of statistical concepts within the financial industry.

N330

Taxation

The study of the rules and operations of taxation systems.

N340

Financial management

The study of the management of money, capital and credit.

N341

Financial risk

The study of the risks involved in the handling of money, capital and credit.

N390

Finance not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Finance categories. To be used sparingly.

N400

Accounting

The study of the rules, standards and methods of financial accounting within organisations.

N410

Accountancy

The application of the rules, standards and methods of financial accounting within organisations.

N411

Cost & management accountancy

The application cost and management accounting techniques within organisations.

N412

Public accountancy

The application of accounting techniques that are specific to public sector organisations.

N413

Book keeping

The techniques involved in recording financial information within organisations.

N420

Accounting theory

The study of the theoretical basis of accounting practice.

N421

Auditing of accounts

The specific techniques involved in auditing financial accounts.

N422

Financial reporting

The study of specific techniques involved in explaining and disclosing transactions involving money, capital and credit.

N490

Accounting not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Accounting categories. To be used sparingly.

N500

Marketing

The techniques involved in the management of an organisation's relationship with its customers and the world at large.

N510

Market research

The specific techniques involved in the identification, definition and research of markets for an organisation's products or services.

N520

Sales management

The specific techniques involved in the management of a sales function within an organisation.

N530

Distribution

The techniques involved in delivering a product or service to a customer or end user.

N550

International marketing

The specific techniques involved in marketing goods or services to other countries or cultures.

N560

Promotion & advertising

The techniques involved in the promotion and advertising of an organisation or an organisation's products.

N561

Advertising

The study of promotional displays, whether presented orally or visually, in order to sell items and services or to publicise events. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the production of the artwork and ideas themselves.

N562

Corporate image

The study of the way an organisation is perceived by its members and the public. Includes the impact of promotional displays in order subliminally to recall a particular company or product.

N563

Sponsorship

The study of the provision of funds for an activity or charity in order to gain publicity.

N590

Marketing not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Marketing categories. To be used sparingly.

N600

Human resource management

The specific techniques involved in the management and development of an organisation's human resources.

N611

Industrial relations

The specific techniques involved in the management of people in a situation involving trade unions or similar staff organisations.

N612

Staff development

The specific techniques involved in the development of an organisation's human resources.

N613

Training methods

The study of specific techniques involved in teaching within a business environment.

N614

Recruitment methods

The study of specific techniques involved in recruitment.

N620

Health & safety issues

The study of issues relating to health and safety in the workplace.

N690

Human resources management not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Human Resources Management categories. To be used sparingly.

N700

Office skills

The generic skills involved in organisational administration.

N710

Office administration

The skills involved in office administration and management.

N720

Secretarial & typing skills

Generic secretarial skills.

N721

Audio typing

The typing of documents from a spoken source.

N722

Shorthand & shorthand transcription

Study of shorthand writing and transcription back into normal English.

N790

Office skills not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Office skills categories. To be used sparingly.

N800

Hospitality, leisure, sport, tourism & transport

The study of travel, event management, tourism, transport, hospitality, recreation, sport management and leisure.

N810

Travel management

The specific study of the travel industry, its structure, regulation and distribution methods.

N820

Event management

The study of managing one-off events such as conferences, shows and visits.

N830

Tourism

The study of UK and international tourism.

N831

Tourism studies

The study of the impact and development of tourism.

N832

Tourism management

The study of the management of tourism.

N850

Transport studies

The study of the organisation and management of transport systems.

N851

Land travel

The study of the organisation and management of land-based transport systems. Includes transport by rivers, lakes and canals.

N852

Sea travel

The study of the organisation and management of salt-water transport systems.

N853

Air travel

The study of the organisation and management of air transport systems.

N860

Hospitality

The study of the provision of food, drink and accommodation in a service context. Includes event management.

N861

Hospitality studies

The study of the nature and provision of hospitality.

N862

Hospitality management

The study of the hospitality industry and its management.

N870

Recreation & leisure studies

The study of the nature, provision and impact of recreation and leisure and their management and development.

N871

Spa management

The study of the organisation and management of spas.

N872

Salon management

The study of the organisation and management of salons.

N880

Sport management

The study of management theories, concepts and principles of practice in the context of sport industries, organisations and initiatives.

N890

Hospitality, leisure, sport, tourism & transport not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Hospitality, leisure, sport, tourism & transport categories. To be used sparingly.

N900

Others in business & administrative studies

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Business and Administrative studies categories. To be used sparingly.

N990

Business & administrative studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Business and Administrative categories. To be used sparingly.

P - Mass Communication & Documentation

P100

Information services

The study of the administration of information resources and services. Includes the collection, sorting and ordering of data and information. Encompasses the cataloguing of sources and the arrangement of archives. May include care, management and organisation of exhibits.

P110

Information management

The study of the specification, use and availability of information services.

P120

Librarianship

The training of professional library staff in the administration of library resources and services.

P121

Library studies

The study of the professional administration of library resources and services. Includes the collecting and cataloguing of information and archives.

P130

Curatorial studies

The training of professional museum staff in the administration of museum resources and services.

P131

Museum studies

The study of the professional administration, management and creation of museum resources and services. May include the care, management and organisation of exhibits, gallery studies, installations, outdoor and indoor collections and promotion.

P132

Archive studies

The study of the professional administration of archive resources and services. Includes the collecting and cataloguing of information.

P190

Information services not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Information Services categories. To be used sparingly.

P200

Publicity studies

The study of the transmission of information and/or knowledge. Includes study of the techniques of attracting attention. May include media practices and production, cultural differences and communication on an individual, group or national basis.

P210

Public relations

The study of creating, promoting and maintaining a favourable image among the public towards an individual or organisation.

P290

Publicity studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Publicity studies categories. To be used sparingly.

P300

Media studies

The study of communication between people through broadcasting, cinema, the press and by electronic means. May involve the study of the media industry, technical innovations and the role of audiences.

P301

Television studies

The study of communication between people through television. May involve study of the television industry, technical innovations and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the production of the artwork and ideas themselves.

P302

Radio studies

The study of communication between people through radio. May involve study of the radio industry, technical innovations and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the production of the artwork and ideas themselves.

P303

Film studies

The study of communication between people through film. May involve study of the film industry, technical innovations and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the production of the artwork and ideas themselves.

P304

Electronic media studies

The study of the communication of people through electronic media. May involve study of the internet, World Wide Web, technical innovations and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the equipment and technology.

P305

Paper-based media studies

The study of the communication between people through paper-based media. May involve the study of books, newspapers and magazines, technical development and the role of audiences. Concentrates on business, management and financial aspects and not on the printing and technical expertise.

P310

Media production

The study of the organisation and presentation of media events.

P311

Television production

The study of the organisation and presentation of events on television.

P312

Radio production

The study of the organisation and presentation of events on radio.

P313

Film production

The study of the organisation and presentation of events on film.

P390

Media studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Media studies categories. To be used sparingly.

P400

Publishing

The study of the production, distribution and sale of information made available by printed, electronic or other means.

P410

Electronic publishing

The study of the production, distribution and sale of information by electronic means.

P411

Publishing on audio/video tape

The study of the production, distribution and sale of information on audio/video tape.

P412

Publishing on CD-ROM

The study of the production, distribution and sale of information on CD-ROM.

P413

Publishing via the World Wide Web

The study of the production, distribution and sale of information via the world wide web.

P420

Multimedia publishing

The study of the production, distribution and sale of information in a variety of ways, in sequence or parallel.

P430

Interactive publishing

The study of the production, distribution and sale of information which the recipient, with the right equipment, is able to interrogate and manipulate.

P490

Publishing not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Publishing categories. To be used sparingly.

P500

Journalism

The study of reporting, photographing and editing news stories. Includes the ownership and control of the press and the power it conveys. Also includes study of political, ethical and economic influences.

P510

Factual reporting

The study of the dissemination of factual information.

P590

Journalism not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Journalism categories. To be used sparingly.

P900

Others in mass communications & documentation

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Mass Communications and Documentation categories. To be used sparingly.

P990

Mass communications & documentation not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Mass Communications and Documentation categories. To be used sparingly.

Q - Linguistics, Classics and Related Subjects

Q100

Linguistics

The study of the nature of language, its development and acquisition. May involve some study of human vocal anatomy.

Q110

Applied linguistics

The investigation of the acquisition of language and how to improve it. Includes study of language impairment and how to remedy it. Also includes Language Pathology.

Q120

Historical linguistics

The study of the structure and development of languages, now dead, which form the root of modern languages. May also be called Philology.

Q130

Phonetics & phonology

The study of speech and language from the point of view of sound analysis.

Q131

Phonetics

The study of speech processes, including the production, perception and analysis of speech sound. Includes speech acoustics, anatomy and physiology.

Q132

Phonology

The study of the sound systems of languages.

Q140

Sociolinguistics

The study of socially-conditioned factors in language and language use.

Q150

Psycholinguistics

The study of cognition and the effects of psychology on linguistic understanding and ability.

Q160

British Sign Language

The study of British Sign language, its structure, history, grammar and use. This may include the study of the British deaf community and culture and interpretation between BSL and English. May also include the linguistic study of BSL and comparison with other signed and spoken languages.

Q190

Linguistics not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Linguistics categories. To be used sparingly.

Q200

Comparative literary studies

The study of the writers, literatures and literary history of various countries and languages using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q210

Literature in translation

The study, analysis and interpretation of literature translated into a language other than the one in which it was originally written.

Q220

Literature in its original language

The study, analysis and interpretation of literature written in a language other than English.

Q290

Comparative literary studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Comparative Literary studies categories. To be used sparingly.

Q300

English studies

The study of the English language and literature originally written in English using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. May involve studying the structure of the language, its history, grammar and use.

Q310

English language

The study of the history, grammar and use of English. Includes pronunciation and articulation.

Q320

English literature

The study of literature originally written in English. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q321

English literature by period

The study of English Literature written within a particular chronological period.

Q322

English literature by author

The study of the works of a particular author of English Literature.

Q323

English literature by topic

The study of English Literature written describing particular cultures, societies, skills, periods of history, etc.

Q330

English as a second language

The study of the structure and acquisition of English from the point of view of a non-native speaker. Includes pronunciation and articulation.

Q340

English literature written as a second language

The study of English Literature written by authors whose native language is not English.

Q350

Scots language

The study of the history, grammar and use of Scots. Includes pronunciation and articulation.

Q360

Scots literature

The study of literature originally written in Scots. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q370

Irish language

The study of the history, grammar and use of Irish. Includes pronunciation and articulation.

Q380

Irish literature

The study of literature originally written in Irish. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q390

English studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other English studies categories. To be used sparingly.

Q400

Ancient language studies

The study of ancient languages, their structure and semantics. May involve investigation into their linguistic, social and/or religious significance and their position as the basis for modern languages.

Q410

Ancient Egyptian

The study of the structure, semantics, cultural significance and hieroglyphics of ancient Egyptian.

Q411

Coptic

The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the Afro-Asiatic language descended from ancient Egyptian and surviving in the Coptic church.

Q420

Classical Arabic

The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of classical Arabic.

Q430

Akkadian

The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the East Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language used in central Mesopotamia.

Q440

Sumerian

The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the language of the Sumer civilisation which bears no known relationship to any other language.

Q450

Sanskrit

The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the oldest recorded branch of the Indic branch of the Indo-European ancient language of India.

Q460

Prakrit

The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the ancient vernacular language of India.

Q470

Aramaic

The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the ancient language of the Middle-East.

Q480

Hebrew

The study of the structure, semantics and cultural significance of the ancient language of the Jews.

Q490

Ancient language studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Ancient Language studies categories. To be used sparingly.

Q500

Celtic studies

The study of Celtic culture and its literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. Involves language study and/or comparison between languages.

Q510

Ancient Celtic studies

The study of ancient Celtic culture and its literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. Involves language study and/or comparison between languages.

Q520

Modern Celtic studies

The study of modern Celtic culture and its literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. Involves language study and/or comparison between languages.

Q521

Goidelic group of languages

The study of the northern group of Celtic languages, consisting of Scottish and Irish Gaelic and Manx. Involves study and comparison of literature and languages. May also be called Goidelic or Gadhelic.

Q522

Brythonic group of languages

The study of the southern group of Celtic languages, consisting of Welsh, Cornish and Breton. Involves study and comparison of literature and languages. May also be called Brittonic.

Q530

Scottish Gaelic

The study of the history, grammar and use of Scottish Gaelic. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q531

Scottish Gaelic literature

The study of literature originally written in Scottish Gaelic. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q540

Irish Gaelic

The study of the history, grammar and use of Irish Gaelic. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q541

Irish Gaelic literature

The study of literature originally written in Irish Gaelic. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q550

Manx

The study of the history, grammar and use of Manx. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q551

Manx literature

The study of literature originally written in Manx. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q560

Welsh

The study of the history, grammar and use of Welsh. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q561

Welsh literature

The study of literature originally written in Welsh. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q570

Cornish

The study of the history, grammar and use of Cornish. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q571

Cornish literature

The study of literature originally written in Cornish. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q580

Breton

The study of the history, grammar and use of the language of Brittany. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q581

Breton literature

The study of literature originally written in Breton. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q590

Celtic studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Celtic studies categories. To be used sparingly.

Q600

Latin studies

The study of Latin, its structure, history, grammar and use. May involve investigation into its relationship with modern day speech and language. May also involve the study of literature texts using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q610

Latin language

The study of the history, grammar and use of Latin. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q611

Church Latin

The study of the history, grammar and use of ecclesiastical Latin and how it differs from standard Latin. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q612

Medieval Latin

The study of the history and grammar of vernacular Latin used in legal documents and how it differs from standard Latin. Includes acquisition and individual written forms.

Q620

Latin literature

The study of literature originally written in Latin. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q630

Latin literature in translation

The study of literature originally written in Latin and translated into English. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q690

Latin studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Latin studies categories. To be used sparingly.

Q700

Classical Greek studies

The study of Classical Greek, its structure, history, grammar and use. May involve investigation into its relationship with modern day speech and language. May also involve the study of language texts using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q710

Classical Greek language

The study of the history, grammar and use of Classical Greek. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q711

Classical Church Greek

The study of the history, grammar and use of ecclesiastical Classical Greek and how it differs from standard Classical Greek. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q712

Late Greek

The study of the history, grammar and use of the Greek used in Eastern churches and how it differs from standard Classical Greek. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

Q720

Classical Greek literature

The study of literature originally written in Classical Greek. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q730

Classical Greek literature in translation

The study of literature originally written in Classical Greek and translated into English. Includes the use of techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

Q790

Classical Greek studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Classical Greek studies categories. To be used sparingly.

Q800

Classical studies

Study of the civilisation of Ancient Greece and Rome. May involve investigation into their relationship with modern day civilisation.

Q810

Classical reception

The study of the impact of Greek and Roman literary and visual culture on subsequent cultures.

Q890

Classical studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Classical studies categories. To be used sparingly.

Q900

Others in linguistics, classics & related subjects

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Linguistics, Classics and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

Q910

Translation studies

The study, analysis and interpretation of the techniques of translation from one language into another.

Q920

Translation theory

The study, analysis and interpretation of the processes of translation from one language into another.

Q990

Linguistics, classics & related subjects not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Others in Linguistics, Classics and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

R - European Languages, Literature and Related Subjects

R100

French studies

The study of the French Language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of French culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R110

French language

The study of the French language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R120

French literature

The study of French literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R130

French society & culture

The study of French society and culture.

R190

French studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other French studies categories. To be used sparingly.

R200

German studies

The study of the German language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of German culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R210

German language

The study of the German language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R220

German literature

The study of German literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R230

German society & culture

The study of German society and culture.

R290

German studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other German studies categories. To be used sparingly.

R300

Italian studies

The study of the Italian language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Italian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R310

Italian language

The study of the Italian language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R320

Italian literature

The study of Italian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R330

Italian society & culture

The study of Italian society and culture.

R390

Italian studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Italian studies categories. To be used sparingly.

R400

Spanish studies

The study of the Spanish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Spanish culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R410

Spanish language

The study of the Spanish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R411

Spanish languages in other countries

The study of the Spanish language, specific to its structure, history, grammar and use in countries other than Spain.

R420

Spanish literature

The study of Spanish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R430

Spanish society & culture

The study of Spanish society and culture.

R490

Spanish studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Spanish studies categories. To be used sparingly.

R500

Portuguese studies

The study of the Portuguese language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Portuguese culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R510

Portuguese language

The study of the Portuguese language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R511

Portuguese languages in other countries

The study of the Portuguese language, specific to its structure, history, grammar and use in countries other than Portugal.

R520

Portuguese literature

The study of Portuguese literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R530

Portuguese society & culture

The study of Portuguese society and culture.

R590

Portuguese studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Portuguese studies categories. To be used sparingly.

R600

Scandinavian studies

The study of Scandinavian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Scandinavian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R610

Scandinavian languages

The study of Scandinavian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R611

Swedish language

The study of the Swedish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R612

Norwegian language

The study of the Norwegian language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R613

Finnish language

The study of the Finnish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R614

Danish language

The study of the Danish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R620

Scandinavian literature

The study of Scandinavian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R621

Swedish literature

The study of Swedish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R622

Norwegian literature

The study of Norwegian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R623

Finnish literature

The study of Finnish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R624

Danish literature

The study of Danish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R630

Scandinavian society & culture

The study of Scandinavian society and culture.

R631

Swedish society & culture

The study of Swedish society and culture.

R632

Norwegian society & culture

The study of Norwegian society and culture.

R633

Finnish society & culture

The study of Finnish society and culture.

R634

Danish society & culture

The study of Danish society and culture.

R690

Scandinavian studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Scandinavian studies categories. To be used sparingly.

R700

Russian & East European studies

The study of Russian and East European languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Russian and East European culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R701

Russian studies

The study of the Russian language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Russian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R702

Czech studies

The study of the Czech language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Czech culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R703

Polish studies

The study of the Polish language, its structure history, grammar and use. May include study of Polish culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R704

Belarusian studies

The study of the Belarusian language, its structure history, grammar and use. May include study of Belarusian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R705

Bulgarian studies

The study of the Bulgarian language, its structure history, grammar and use. May include study of Bulgarian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R706

Hungarian studies

The study of the Hungarian language, its structure history, grammar and use. May include study of Hungarian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R707

Romanian studies

The study of the Romanian language, its structure history, grammar and use. May include study of Romanian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R708

Slovak studies

The study of the Slovak language, its structure history, grammar and use. May include study of Slovakian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R709

Ukrainian studies

The study of the Ukrainian language, its structure history, grammar and use. May include study of Ukrainian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R710

Russian & East European languages

The study of Russian and East European languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R711

Russian language

The study of the Russian language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R712

Polish language

The study of the Polish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R713

Czech language

The study of the Czech language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R720

Russian & east European Literature

The study of Russian and East European literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R721

Russian literature

The study of Russian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R722

Polish literature

The study of Polish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R723

Czech literature

The study of Czech literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R730

Russian & east European society & culture

The study of Russian and East European society and culture.

R731

Russian society & culture

The study of Russian society and culture.

R732

Polish society & culture

The study of Polish society and culture.

R733

Czech society & culture

The study of Czech society and culture.

R790

Russian & east European studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Russian and East European studies categories. To be used sparingly.

R800

European studies

The study of European languages, institutions and society, which can take a broadly comparative approach or can be focused on either individual countries or the European Union. Usually involves the study of at least one modern language, and one or more of history, politics, international relations, economics, geography, sociology and law. In some universities, courses in cultural studies are also included.

R900

Others in European languages, literature & related subjects

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other European Languages, Literature and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

R910

Other European languages

The study of other European languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

R911

Dutch

The study of the Dutch language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Dutch culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R912

Flemish

The study of the Flemish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Flemish culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R920

Other European literature

The study of other European literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

R930

Other European societies & cultures

The study of other European societies and cultures.

R990

European languages, literature & related subjects not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in European Languages, Literature and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

T - Eastern, Asiatic, African, American and Australasian Languages, Literature and Related Subjects

T100

Chinese studies

The study of Chinese languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Chinese culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T110

Chinese language studies

The study of Chinese languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T120

Chinese literature studies

The study of Chinese literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T130

Chinese society & culture studies

The study of Chinese society and culture.

T190

Chinese studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Chinese studies categories. To be used sparingly.

T200

Japanese studies

The study of Japanese languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Japanese culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T210

Japanese language studies

The study of Japanese languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T220

Japanese literature studies

The study of Japanese literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T230

Japanese society & culture studies

The study of Japanese society and culture.

T290

Japanese studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Japanese studies. To be used sparingly.

T300

South Asian studies

The study of South Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of South Asian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T310

South Asian language studies

The study of South Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T311

Indian language studies

The study of the languages of India, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T312

Pakistani language studies

The study of the languages of Pakistan, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T313

Sri Lankan language studies

The study of the languages of Sri Lanka, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T314

Bangladeshi language studies

The study of the Bengali language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T315

Nepali language studies

The study of the languages of Nepal, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T320

South Asian literature studies

The study of South Asian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T321

Indian literature studies

The study of Indian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T322

Pakistani literature studies

The study of Pakistani literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T323

Sri Lankan literature studies

The study of Sri Lankan literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T324

Bangladeshi literature studies

The study of Bangladeshi literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T325

Nepali literature studies

The study of Nepali literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T330

South Asian society & culture studies

The study of South Asian society and culture.

T331

Indian society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of India.

T332

Pakistani society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Pakistan.

T333

Sri Lankan society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Sri Lanka.

T334

Bangladeshi society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Bangladesh.

T335

Nepali society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Nepal.

T390

South Asian studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other South Asian studies categories. To be used sparingly.

T400

Other Asian studies

The study of other Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of other Asian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T410

Other Asian language studies

The study of other Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T411

East Asian language studies

The study of East Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation. Includes Korean, Taiwanese and Mongolian. Does not include Chinese and Japanese languages.

T412

South East Asian language studies

The study of South East Asian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation. Includes Vietnamese, Khmer, Lao and Burmese.

T420

Other Asian literature studies

The study of other Asian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T421

East Asian literature studies

The study of East Asian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. Includes Korean, Taiwanese and Mongolian literature. Does not include Chinese and Japanese literatures.

T422

South East Asian literature studies

The study of South East Asian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation. Includes literature in Vietnamese, Khmer, Lao and Burmese.

T430

Other Asian society & culture studies

The study of other Asian societies and cultures.

T431

East Asian society & culture studies

The study of East Asian societies and cultures. Includes the societies and cultures of Korea, Taiwan and Mongolia. Does not include the societies and cultures of China and Japan.

T432

South East Asian society & culture studies

The study of South East Asian societies and cultures. Includes the societies and cultures of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar.

T490

Other Asian studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Other Asian studies categories. To be used sparingly.

T500

African studies

The study of the acquisition of African languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of African culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T510

African language studies

The study of African languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T511

Eastern African language studies

The study of the languages of Eastern Africa, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation. Includes Amharic, Somali and Swahili.

T512

Central African language studies

The study of the languages of Central Africa, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation. Includes Lingala, Kongo, Bemba and Chichewa.

T513

Northern African language studies

The study of the languages of Northern Africa, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation. Includes Berber.

T514

Southern African language studies

The study of the languages of Southern Africa, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation. Includes Zulu, Xhosa and Afrikaans.

T515

Western African language studies

The study of the languages of Western Africa, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation. Includes Hausa, Yoruba, Twi and Igbo.

T520

African literature studies

The study of African literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T521

Eastern African literature studies

The study of Eastern African literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T522

Central African literature studies

The study of Central African literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T523

Northern African literature studies

The study of Northern African literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T524

Southern African literature studies

The study of Southern African literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T525

Western African literature studies

The study of Western African literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T530

African society & culture studies

The study of African societies and cultures.

T531

Eastern African society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Eastern Africa.

T532

Central African society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Central Africa.

T533

Northern African society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Northern Africa.

T534

Southern African society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Southern Africa.

T535

Western African society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Western Africa.

T590

African studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other African studies categories. To be used sparingly.

T600

Modern Middle Eastern studies

The study of the acquisition of the modern Middle-Eastern languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.

T610

Modern Middle Eastern language studies

The study of modern Middle Eastern languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T611

Arabic language studies

The study of Arabic languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T612

Modern Standard Arabic language studies

The study of Modern Standard Arabic language, its structure, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T613

Persian language studies

The study of Persian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T614

Modern Hebrew language studies

The study of Modern Hebrew, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T615

Kurdish language studies

The study of Kurdish languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T616

Turkish language studies

The study of the Turkish language, its structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T620

Modern Middle Eastern literature studies

The study of modern Middle Eastern literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T621

Arabic literature studies

The study of Arabic literature, both classical and modern, using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T623

Persian literature studies

The study of Persian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T624

Modern Hebrew literature studies

The study of Modern Hebrew literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T625

Kurdish literature studies

The study of Kurdish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T626

Turkish literature studies

The study of Turkish literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T630

Modern Middle Eastern society & culture studies

The study of modern Middle Eastern societies and cultures.

T631

Arab society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Arabic-speaking people.

T633

Persian society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Persian-speaking people.

T634

Modern Hebrew society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Modern Hebrew-speaking people.

T635

Kurdish society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Kurdish-speaking people.

T636

Turkish society & culture studies

The study of the societies and cultures of Turkish-speaking people.

T690

Modern Middle Eastern studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Modern Middle-Eastern studies categories. To be used sparingly.

T700

American studies

The study of the acquisition of languages of the Americas, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of the cultures and literatures of the Americas using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T710

American language studies

The study of American languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T711

Latin American language studies

The study of Latin American languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T712

United States language studies

The study of the languages of the United States, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T713

Canadian language studies

The study of the languages of Canada, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T714

Caribbean language studies

The study of Caribbean languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. Includes acquisition, pronunciation and articulation.

T720

American literature studies

The study of American literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T721

Latin American literature studies

The study of Latin American literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T722

United States literature studies

The study of literature from the United States using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T723

Canadian literature studies

The study of Canadian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T724

Caribbean literature studies

The study of Caribbean literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T730

American society & culture studies

The study of American societies and cultures.

T731

Latin American society & culture studies

The study of Latin American societies and cultures.

T732

United States society & culture studies

The study of United States societies and cultures.

T733

Canadian society & culture studies

The study of Canadian societies and cultures.

T734

Caribbean society & culture studies

The study of Caribbean societies and cultures.

T790

American studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other American studies categories. To be used sparingly.

T800

Australasian studies

The study of the acquisition of Australasian and South West Pacific languages, their structure, history, grammar and use. May include study of Australasian culture and literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T810

Australasian language studies

The study of Australasian and South West Pacific languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.

T820

Australasian literature studies

The study of Australasian and South West Pacific literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T830

Australasian society & culture studies

The study of Australasian and South West Pacific societies and cultures.

T890

Australasian studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related studies which do not fit into the other Australasian studies categories. To be used sparingly.

T900

Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian languages, literature & related subjects

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Eastern, Asiatic, African, American and Australasian languages, Literature and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

T910

Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian languages

The study of other Eastern, Asiatic, African American and Australasian languages, their structure, history, grammar and use.

T920

Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian literature

The study of other Eastern, Asiatic, African American and Australasian literature using the techniques of literary analysis and interpretation.

T930

Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian societies & culture

The study of other Eastern, Asiatic, African American and Australasian societies and cultures.

T990

Eastern, Asiatic, African, American & Australasian languages, literature

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Eastern, Asiatic, African American and Australasian Languages, Literature and related subjects categories. To be used sparingly.

V - Historical and Philosophical Studies

V100

History by period

Recording and interpreting past events and social and political developments chronologically.

V140

Modern history

Historical studies of the period c.1550 AD to the present.

V141

Modern history 1500-1599

Historical studies of the period 1500-1599.

V142

Modern history 1600-1699

Historical studies of the period 1600-1699.

V143

Modern history 1700-1799

Historical studies of the period 1700-1799.

V144

Modern history 1800-1899

Historical studies of the period 1800-1899.

V145

Modern history 1900-1919

Historical studies of the period 1900-1919. Includes World War I studies.

V146

Modern history 1920-1949

Historical studies of the period 1920-1949. Includes World War II studies.

V147

Modern history 1950-1999

Historical studies of the period 1950-1999.

V148

Modern history 2000-2099

Historical studies of the period 2000-2099.

V150

Medieval history

Historical studies of the period 600-1500 AD.

V160

Ancient history

Historical studies of the period 900 BC to 500 AD.

V161

Late Antique history

Historical studies of the period 300-600 AD.

V190

History by period not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the others in History by Period. To be used sparingly.

V200

History by area

Recording and interpreting past events and social and political developments geographically.

V210

British history

Historical studies focusing on the British Isles.

V211

Irish history

Historical studies of Ireland.

V212

Scottish history

Historical studies of Scotland.

V213

Welsh history

Historical studies of Wales.

V214

English history

Historical studies of England.

V220

European history

Historical studies focusing on continental Europe.

V221

French history

Historical studies of France.

V222

German history

Historical studies of Germany.

V223

Italian history

Historical studies of Italy.

V224

Iberian history

Historical studies of Spain and Portugal.

V225

Russian history

Historical studies of Russia.

V230

American history

Historical studies of the Americas.

V231

Canadian history

Historical studies of Canada.

V232

USA history

Historical studies of the United States of America.

V233

South American history

Historical studies of South and Latin America.

V234

Central American history

Historical studies of Central America.

V240

Asian history

Historical studies of continental Asia.

V241

Chinese history

Historical studies of China.

V242

Indian history

Historical studies of the Indian sub-continent.

V243

South East Asian history

Historical studies of South East Asia.

V244

Byzantine History

Historical studies in the Byzantine Empire from 300-600 AD.

V250

African history

Historical studies of continental Africa.

V251

North African history

Historical studies of North Africa.

V252

Central African history

Historical studies of Central and Equatorial Africa.

V253

Southern African history

Historical studies of Southern Africa including South Africa.

V254

East African history

Historical studies of East Africa.

V255

West African history

Historical studies of West Africa.

V260

Australasian history

Historical studies of the continent of Australasia.

V261

Australian history

Historical studies of Australia.

V262

New Zealand history

Historical studies of New Zealand.

V270

World history

Historical studies considered globally.

V271

International history

Historical studies of relations between nation states.

V290

History by area not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the others in History by Area categories. To be used sparingly.

V300

History by topic

The study of recording, interpreting and comparing developments of particular skills, artefacts, cultures or other areas of interest.

V310

Economic history

Study of the growth and development of economies in history. May include the study of industrialisation.

V320

Social history

The interpretation of the underlying processes of change in society. Includes the study of the growth and development of societies in history.

V321

Local history

Social historical study of a particular locality such as a town or village.

V322

Oral history

The study of spoken records as historical evidence.

V323

Family history

Genealogical study of family or personal descent.

V324

Crime history

Historical studies of the development of criminal justice theories and social responses to crime.

V330

History of religions

Historical study of religious movements and their interaction with other cultures.

V340

Intellectual history

The history of ideas and the study of intellectual movements.

V350

History of art

Historical study of developments in the arts and consideration of art history methods and techniques. Includes the enhancement of visual awareness and expertise as an aspect of cultural history.

V360

History of architecture

Historical study of building design and architectural movements.

V370

History of design

Historical study of design styles and movements.

V380

History of science

Investigation of the historical development of the sciences in their economic and cultural context. Includes the influence of non-scientific factors and the impact of science on society.

V381

History of physics

Historical studies of natural philosophy and the physical sciences.

V382

History of chemistry

Historical studies of the chemical sciences.

V383

History of mathematics

Historical studies of the mathematical sciences.

V384

History of medicine

Historical studies of medical sciences and practices.

V390

History by topic not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the others in History by Topic categories. To be used sparingly.

V391

Military history

Historical studies of the development of armed forces and their deployment in warfare.

V400

Archaeology

The study of human prehistory, development of early societies and the emergence of civilisation. Includes socio-historical analysis of the material remains from excavations of past cultures to reconstruct and understand the past.

V410

Egyptology

The archaeological study of the civilisations of ancient Egypt.

V420

Stone Age

The archaeology of the period of human culture characterised by the making and use of stone implements and artefacts.

V430

Bronze Age

The archaeology of the period of human culture characterised by the making and use of bronze implements and artefacts, c.4500BC-500 BC.

V440

Iron Age

The archaeology of the period of human culture characterised by the making and use of iron implements and artefacts, c.1100 BC-c.1st AD.

V450

Archaeological conservation

Methods of preserving artefacts from excavations for retrieval and analysis of archaeological information.

V460

Archaeological techniques

Methods of surveying, field archaeology and palaeography.

V470

Classical art & archaeology

The study of the material culture of classical civilisations.

V471

Roman art & archaeology

The study of the material culture of the Roman world from 700 BC to 500 AD.

V472

Greek art & archaeology

The study of the material culture of the Greek world from the Bronze Age to 500 AD.

V490

Archaeology not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the others in Archaeology categories. To be used sparingly.

V500

Philosophy

The critical examination of fundamental beliefs about meaning, truth and reality, right and wrong.

V510

Metaphysics

Consideration of the problems in the theories of being and thought.

V511

Epistemology

The study of the theory of knowledge.

V520

Moral philosophy

The study of the concept of morality and codes of behaviour.

V530

Scholastic philosophy

Consideration of philosophical thought of the medieval period.

V540

Social philosophy

Consideration of philosophical questions about an individual's responsibility and obligations to society.

V550

Philosophy of science

The study of the philosophy of the Sciences, including scientific methodology, the nature of scientific knowledge and the use of formal logic.

V560

Mental philosophy

The study of the philosophy of thinking and the mind.

V590

Philosophy not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Philosophy categories. To be used sparingly.

V600

Theology & religious studies

The study of the nature of divinity and of beliefs in their social context.

V610

Theology

Interpretation of doctrinal concepts such as faith, revelation and grace.

V620

Religious studies

Identification and classification of religions and the comparative study of the world's religious traditions.

V621

Christian studies

The theory and practice of Roman Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox and other Christian denominations.

V622

Islamic studies

The theory and practice of Islam.

V623

Judaism

The theory and practice of the Jewish religion.

V624

Hinduism

The theory and practice of the Hindu religious tradition.

V625

Buddhism

The theory and practice of the Buddhist religious tradition.

V626

Other Asian religious studies

The theory and practice of other Asian religions.

V627

Comparative religious studies

The comparative study of different religious beliefs, customs and observations.

V630

Divinity

Investigation into the nature of a deity and other divine beings.

V640

Religious writings

The study and interpretation of religious writings in their historical, theological and philosophical contexts.

V641

The Bible & Christian texts

Includes study of the Old and New Testaments, the apocryphal writings and patristic exegesis.

V642

The Qur'an & Islamic texts

Includes study of the Qur'an (Koran) and interpretation of Sharia.

V643

The Torah & Judaic texts

Includes study of the Torah and Talmudic interpretation.

V644

Asian religious texts

Includes study of the Bhagavad-Gita, Tripitaka, Vedic, Taoist and Confucian texts.

V645

Comparative religious texts

Critical interpretation, comparison and analysis of religious texts.

V650

Pastoral studies

The study of religious practice in its social setting. It includes the work of the Ministry in religious education.

V690

Theology & religious studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Theology and Religious studies categories. To be used sparingly.

V700

Heritage studies

The study of objects, practices, traditions and social and cultural movements that form or influence collections. To include intangible heritage, and areas distinct from history and or geography.

V710

Heritage theory

The study of the theory behind heritage education and management, and conservation and preservation practices.

V720

Heritage site management

The study of the management of existing and newly designated sites of heritage importance, including working with heritage organisations, legal consultants, the voluntary sector, governments and international bodies.

V730

Natural heritage

The study of areas of natural heritage including local, national and international sites, how they have developed and how they are protected.

V731

Coastal heritage management

The study of the particular aspects of coastal heritage within the wider natural heritage context, including leisure and tourism, industry, communities and landscape.

V740

Visitor management including interpretation

The study of the management of visitors, individually or in groups, to heritage sites. To include the movement of visitors, branding and site identity and site interpretation.

V750

Oral history, heritage & genealogy

The study of the preservation, conservation, and communication of oral heritage including children’s and adult heritage traditions. To include the study of family history and heritage, including heritage sites associated with specific families for more than two generations or with particular group cultures.

V900

Others in historical & philosophical studies

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Historical and Philosophical studies categories. To be used sparingly.

V990

Historical & philosophical studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Historical and Philosophical studies categories. To be used sparingly.

W - Creative Arts and Design

W100

Fine art

The aesthetic representation in one medium of what is reality in another. Encompasses all artistic media.

W110

Drawing

The study of/training in the expression of emotions, ideas or views of reality through representation by lines on a surface. Includes the use of such media as pen & ink, pencil, charcoal, pastel etc.

W120

Painting

The study of/training in the expression of emotions, ideas or views of reality through representation by the application of paints and chemical colour substances to canvasses or other materials.

W130

Sculpture

The representation of reality using three-dimensional media, e.g. stone, metal, wood etc.

W140

Printmaking

The study of/training in the expression of emotions, ideas or views of reality by rendering art concepts onto surfaces and transferring images, via ink or dyes, onto paper or fabric.

W150

Calligraphy

The study of/training in the artistic construction of hand-written text.

W160

Fine art conservation

The study of the conservation, protection and restoration of fine art artefacts.

W190

Fine art not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Fine Art categories. To be used sparingly.

W200

Design studies

The study of design for everyday objects, taking into account technology and commerce as well as appearance and current art thinking. May involve the use of computers as design tools.

W210

Graphic design

The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques effectively to communicate ideas and information to business and consumer audiences via forms of printed media.

W211

Typography

The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques in the design and production of printed matter.

W212

Multimedia design

The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques in design using a variety of materials.

W213

Visual communication

The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques in design to impart information.

W220

Illustration

The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques effectively to communicate ideas and information to business and consumer audiences via drawn or painted images.

W230

Clothing/fashion design

The study of/training in the design and use of textiles and other materials to create items of apparel.

W231

Textile design

The study of/training in the design of textiles.

W240

Industrial/product design

The study of/training in the design of industrial and consumer products to meet aesthetic, functional and commercial requirements.

W250

Interior design

The study of/training in the use of artistic techniques in the planning, designing, equipping and furnishing of residential, commercial and public interior spaces.

W260

Furniture design

The study of/training in the design of furniture for residential, commercial and public environments.

W270

Ceramics design

The study of/training in the design of ceramic artefacts.

W280

Interactive & electronic design

The study of/training in the design of non-static computer-generated images.

W290

Design studies not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Design studies categories. To be used sparingly.

W300

Music

The study of melody, harmony and rhythm produced in accordance with specified patterns and sequences. May include performance, theory and history of music.

W310

Musicianship/performance studies

The study of/training in the mastering of musical instruments and performing art as solo and/or ensemble performers.

W311

Instrumental or vocal performance

The study of performance in relation to various genres of music, theatre and performing arts (concert, recital, play, ballet, operetta, circus acts, poetry).

W312

Musical theatre

The study of the definition and styles of music within the theatrical arena.

W313

Conducting

The study of directing musical performance by way of visible gestures.

W314

Jazz performance

The study of performance in the jazz genre. The preparation of individuals to master the performance of jazz. Includes instruction in improvisation, jazz instrument and ensemble performance.

W315

Popular music performance

The study of performance in the genre of music classified as popular music, providing excellent creative opportunities for performers.

W316

Electronic/electro-acoustic music performance

The study of performance in the genre of music classified as electronic and electro-acoustic music, using the principles and techniques of electronic sound manipulation and computer applications.

W317

Historical performance practice

The study of historical interpretation, utilising period instruments and gaining insight into traditional approaches and original sources.

W320

Music education/teaching

The study associated with the teaching and learning of music, developing music skills and appreciation.

W330

History of music

The study of the historical development of music and musical styles.

W340

Types of music

The study of specific types and variants of musical genres.

W341

Popular music

The study of popular music that is accessible to the general public and disseminated by one or more of the mass media.

W342

Film music/screen music

The analytical study of film/screen music including techniques of musical style and composition for the moving image.

W343

Jazz

The study of music classified as in the style of jazz. Includes instruction in the history of jazz and jazz theory.

W344

Folk music

The study of music classified as in the style of folk music exploring its traditional and revived forms.

W345

Opera

The study of music classified as opera, including the theatrical, musical and literary techniques used by composers when creating new works.

W346

Sacred music

The study of the use of music in the church and the role of music in worship and other world religions.

W350

Musicology

The systematic study of the forms and methods of music art, and the functions of music in societies and cultures.

W351

Ethnomusicology/world music

The study of music and dance from all parts of the world, focusing on the systematic study of the forms and methods of music art, and the functions of music, in Western and non-Western societies and cultures.

W352

Community music

The study of music in everyday life and the development of the professional and critical skills required in community-based music making, including the facilitating of community music projects.

W353

Music & gender

The study of music relating to a specific gender.

W354

Philosophy, aesthetics & criticism of music

The study of the nature, quality and beauty of music and our evaluation, interpretation and enjoyment of music and its performance.

W355

Music psychology

The study of psychological theory and methods to interpret and understand musical behaviours, sounds and ideas.

W356

Music theory & analysis

The study of conceptual structures typical of music theory and method and techniques used to analyse music.

W357

Sociology of music

The study of the relationship between music and society. Concerned with the function of music in society and the ways in which society influences the development of music.

W360

Musical instrument history

Historical studies of the development of musical instruments in the context of changing styles of playing and performance.

W370

Music technology & industry

The technical aspects involved with the musical arts, particularly the use of electronic devices and music industry business practices.

W371

Sound design/commercial music recording

The study of the concepts of sound recording and reproduction through electronic means, including all aspects of recording within the music industry.

W372

Creative music technology

The study of the conceptually creative uses of computer-based music and the latest development of technical skills involved in the music business.

W373

Electro-acoustic studies

The study of the production, transmission, and reception of sounds by the human voice and various instruments for electronic sound system design, integration and digital acoustical consulting.

W374

Music production

The study of music and audio production techniques relating to commercial trends and current technologies to control recording sessions and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes.

W375

Music management/music industry management/arts management

The study of managing music organisations, operations, facilities, and personnel. Includes instruction in business and financial management, music law and applications to specific activities such as managing theatres, recording studios, bands and individual artists.

W376

Music marketing

The study of the organisation of branding, pricing and promotion of the spectrum of musical products and services. Including event promotion, music products merchandising, artist agency and promotion.

W380

Composition

The creation of a new piece of original music and structure.

W381

Electracoustic composition/acousmatic composition

The creation of an original piece of music in the genre of music classified as electracoustic, using the principles and techniques of electronic sound manipulation and computer applications.

W382

Sonic arts

The creation of an original piece of music using practices that predominantly focus on a relationship between the wide notions of the visual and aural domains of art and sound perception.

W383

Electronic music

The creation of an original piece of music in the genre of music classified as electronic. Includes mastering electronic music production, remixing and composition using cutting edge electronic techniques and digital music technologies.

W384

Applied music/musicianship

Includes traditional music theory and performance, with additional aspects of technology, community music, education, musicology and development of original creative ability.

W385

Commercial music composition

The creation of an original piece of music for commercial activities to be played through the medium of radio or television.

W386

Multimedia music composition

The creation of fusion and experimental musical forms using techniques appropriated from a combination of different interactive content forms.

W387

Jazz composition

The preparation of individuals to master the composition of jazz. Includes instruction in related musical styles such as Blues.

W388

Popular music composition

The study of the expertise of contemporary song-writing, studying musical concepts in popular music cultures and music industry practices of popular music.

W390

Music not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Music categories. To be used sparingly.

W400

Drama

The study of and/or training in acting and stagecraft. May include the study of theatre management and the supervision and production of scenery, costume, lighting etc.

W410

Acting

The study of/training in the communication of dramatic information, ideas, moods, and feelings through the achievement of naturalistic and believable behaviour in imaginary circumstances.

W420

Directing for theatre

The study of/training in the supervision and direction of dramatic performances.

W430

Producing for theatre

The study of/training in the techniques and principals involved in the production of theatrical performances other than acting and directing.

W440

Theatre studies

The study of the technical aspects of theatrical performances.

W441

Theatre & professional practice

The preparation of individuals to apply business management principles to the management of theatres and production corporations.

W442

Contemporary theatre

The preparation of individuals to manage the planning, design, preparation and production of plays and other theatrical entertainment programmes.

W443

Technical arts & special effects for theatre

The preparation of individuals to apply special effects and techniques to the communication of dramatic information through technical theatre methods.

W450

Stage management

The study of the management of lighting, props, scenery and other technical items associated with theatrical performances and management of the stage.

W451

Theatrical wardrobe design

The study of/training in the design of costumes for theatrical performances.

W452

Theatrical make-up

The study of/training in the application of make-up and/or face and body paints for theatrical performances.

W453

Technical stage management

The preparation of individuals for technical stage management, including set design, lighting design, theatre acoustics and technical direction.

W460

Theatre design

The study of the design of theatres and theatre productions.

W461

Stage design

The study of the design of sets and scenery for use in theatres, film and television.

W470

Performance & live arts

The study of dramatic works and their performance. Includes instruction in dramatic styles and types and the principles of organising live productions.

W471

European/world theatre arts

The study of overseas theatre arts, emphasising outward-looking innovative practices that are responsive to international needs.

W472

Circus arts

The study of the range of circus art skills to gain a high level of expertise and performing ability in a particular circus discipline such as trapeze, tightrope or juggling.

W473

Community theatre

The study of theatre performance and practice focusing on community and education developed through projects with people in the local community.

W490

Drama not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Drama categories. To be used sparingly.

W500

Dance

The study of and/or training in the movement of the body, particularly in time to music. May include some study of/training in music and/or drama.

W510

Choreography

The study of/training in the arrangement and planning of staged dance.

W520

Body awareness

The study of the human body in relation to its capabilities in generating artistic forms in dance.

W530

History of dance

The study of the development of dance in societies and cultures.

W531

Dance & culture

The study of dance through the performance of one or more of the dance disciplines, including but not limited to ballet, modern, jazz and folk dance, with focus on the study and analysis of dance as a cultural phenomenon.

W532

Community dance

The preparation of individuals to express ideas and feelings through the performance of one or more of the dance disciplines to support, develop and initiate dance activities within communities.

W540

Types of dance

The study of/training in the specific styles and genres of dance.

W541

Ballet

The study of ballet dance technique, including pointe, pas de deux, choreography, solo and repertory work as well as conventional academic methodology and skills.

W542

Dance theatre

The study of dance technical skills, dance production and criticism and creative skills needed to develop versatility, individuality and creativity as articulate dance theatre makers and scholars.

W543

Contemporary dance

The study of technical, creative and professional elements of contemporary dance informed by contextual and theoretical study.

W544

Jazz dance

The study of jazz solo and ensemble dance, jazz choreography and technique, and interpretations of specific styles.

W550

Dance performance

The study of the advancement of creative dance performance, including the technical and artistic complexities inherent in performance.

W590

Dance not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Dance categories. To be used sparingly.

W600

Cinematics & photography

The study of all aspects of film making.

W610

Moving image techniques

The study of the techniques and principles associated with the production of moving image sequences.

W611

Directing motion pictures

The study of/training in the direction and arrangement of equipment and actors in the production of a moving image sequence.

W612

Producing motion pictures

The study of/training in all aspects of the production of a moving image sequence other than acting and directing.

W613

Film & sound recording

The study of/training in the recording of audio and video elements in the production of a moving image sequence.

W614

Visual & audio effects

The study of/training in the production of special visual and/or audio effects in the production of moving image sequences.

W615

Animation techniques

The study of/training in the particular techniques associated with the creation of the illusion of movement in a video sequence, by the filming of successive drawings or the positions of puppets.

W620

Cinematography

The study of the purely artistic elements of moving image sequences.

W630

History of cinematics & photography

The study of the development of moving image and still image generation.

W631

History of cinematics

The study of the development of the generating of moving images.

W632

History of photography

The study of the development of the generating of still images.

W640

Photography

The study of/training in all aspects in the creation of still images on photographic film or plates.

W690

Cinematics & photography not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Cinematics and Photography categories. To be used sparingly.

W700

Crafts

The study of the use of a variety of materials individually and in combination to create pleasing and useful items. Includes a high proportion of practical work.

W710

Fabric & leather crafts

The study of all crafts which are based upon the source materials of fabric and leather.

W711

Needlecraft

The study of crafts which draw upon the use of needles to create and decorate fabric and leather artefacts.

W712

Dressmaking

The study of/training in the creation of items of apparel.

W713

Soft furnishing

The study of/training in the creation of soft furnishing items.

W714

Weaving

The craft of interweaving fibres of material, such as cotton, wool etc.

W715

Leatherwork

The craft involved with the creation or decoration of items made from animal skin.

W720

Metal crafts

The study of all crafts which use metals as a source material.

W721

Silversmithing/goldsmithing

The craft of creating artefacts using the materials of silver and gold.

W722

Blacksmithing

The craft of creating artefacts from iron.

W723

Clock/watchmaking

The craft of creating chronometers.

W730

Wood crafts

The study of all crafts which involve the use of wood as a source material.

W731

Carpentry/joinery

The craft of laying-out, fabricating, erecting, installing and repairing wooden structures and fixtures.

W732

Cabinet making

The craft of creating items of wooden furniture.

W733

Marquetry & inlaying

The craft of decorating wooden items by inlaying patterns of thin layers of wood, brass, ivory etc.

W734

Veneering

The craft of bonding thin outer layers of wood, brass, ivory etc. to items for decorative purposes.

W740

Surface decoration

The study of all crafts which involve changing the appearance of objects by adding ornament or colour to their outer layer.

W750

Clay & stone crafts

The study of all crafts which involve the use of clay, stone and related materials.

W751

Pottery

The craft of creating vessels and artefacts from fired clay.

W752

Tile making

The craft of creating decorative and functional tiles from clay and ceramic materials.

W753

Stone crafts

The craft of creating decorative and functional items from stone. May include dry-stone walling.

W760

Reed crafts

The study of all crafts which involve the use of reeds and related materials.

W761

Basketry

The craft of constructing containers from interwoven cane or reeds.

W762

Thatching

The study of the craft of traditional roofing using straw, reeds or similar materials.

W770

Glass crafts

All crafts which involve the use of glass as a source material.

W771

Glassblowing

The craft of constructing glass vessels by means of blowing into molten glass.

W780

Paper crafts

The study of all crafts which involve the making or use of paper as a source material.

W781

Bookbinding

The craft of constructing decorative and ornate bindings for hand-printed books.

W782

Origami

The Japanese craft of folding paper into decorative shapes and figures.

W790

Crafts not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Crafts categories. To be used sparingly.

W800

Imaginative writing

The study of the creation of fictional text.

W810

Scriptwriting

The study of/training in the writing of scripts for theatre/television or motion picture productions.

W820

Poetry writing

The study of/training in the writing of poems.

W830

Prose writing

The study of/training in the writing of prose.

W890

Imaginative writing not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Imaginative Writing categories. To be used sparingly.

W900

Others in creative arts & design

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Creative Arts and Design categories. To be used sparingly.

W990

Creative arts & design not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Creative Arts and Design categories. To be used sparingly.

X - Education

X100

Training teachers

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to a third party.

X110

Training teachers - nursery

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to pre-school children.

X120

Training teachers - primary

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 1 to 6 inclusive.

X121

Training teachers - infant (key stage 1)

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 1 to 2 inclusive.

X122

Training teachers - junior (key stage 2)

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 3 to 6 inclusive.

X130

Training teachers - secondary

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 7 to 11 inclusive.

X131

Training teachers - key stage 3

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 7 to 9 inclusive.

X132

Training teachers - key stage 4

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to children in school years 10 to 11 inclusive.

X140

Training teachers - tertiary

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people above school year 11.

X141

Training teachers - further education

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people in education years 12 to 13 inclusive.

X142

Training teachers - higher education

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people registered on a higher education course.

X150

Training teachers - adult education

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to adults. May include teaching of management training techniques, restructuring of teaching methods to take account of part-time study etc.

X151

Training teachers - coaching

The training of others to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to sportsmen and women.

X160

Training teachers - specialist

The training of others to use non-standard methods to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people with particular learning requirements.

X161

Training teachers - special needs

The training of others to use non-standard methods to impart, explain and disseminate knowledge, skills and learning to people with special needs.

X162

Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL)

The training of others to use non-standard methods to teach English to people whose first language is not English.

X190

Training teachers not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Training Teachers categories. To be used sparingly.

X200

Research & study skills in education

The study of investigative method and the collection of information with the aim of improving individual learning ability and efficiency.

X210

Research skills

The study of investigative method and the collection of information.

X220

Study skills

The study of individual learning ability and techniques with the aim of improving their efficacy and efficiency.

X290

Research & study skills in education not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Research and Study Skills in education categories. To be used sparingly.

X300

Academic studies in education

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve group learning ability and efficiency.

X310

Academic studies in nursery education

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in pre-school children.

X320

Academic studies in primary education

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in children in school years 1 to 6 inclusive.

X330

Academic studies in secondary education

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in children in school years 7 to 11 inclusive.

X340

Academic studies in tertiary education

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people above school year 11.

X341

Academic studies in further education

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people in education years 12 to 13 inclusive.

X342

Academic studies in higher education

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people in higher education.

X350

Academic studies in adult education

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in adults.

X360

Academic studies in specialist education

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people with particular learning requirements.

X370

Academic studies in education (across phases)

The study of teaching and learning, the arrangement of the curriculum, and the investigation of the learning process in order to improve learning ability and efficiency in people of all ages.

X390

Academic studies in education not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into other Academic studies in Education categories. To be used sparingly.

X900

Others in education

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the other Education categories. To be used sparingly.

X990

Education not elsewhere classified

Miscellaneous grouping for related subjects which do not fit into the Others in Education categories. To be used sparingly.